Standard Operating Procedures
- Standard Operating Procedures
- PART 1 ADMINISTRATION AND EDUCATION
- Amendments, Distribution, and Compliance
- Flight Safety
- Paramount Safety
- Instructor Responsibility for Safety
- Right to suspend any Training Operation
- Right to conduct a Check Ride (Anytime, Anywhere Rule)
- Conditions of Aircraft Rentals
- Quality Assurance
- Strategies for Quality Assurance
- Flight Instructors as Auditors
- Modular Method of Auditing
- Corrective Action Process
- Recommendations and Requirements for Improvements
- Personnel Administration
- External Communications
- Task Assignments
- General Administration
- Admissions Policy
- Requests to Start Advanced Training
- Data Back-up
- Refund Policy (PTR)
- Employee Files Policy
- Student Files Policy
- Student Records Storage Policy
- Hiring Policy
- Instructor Annual Performance Review Policy
- Student Feedback Policy
- Instructor Feedback Policy
- Student Withdrawal Policy
- Suspension and Dismissal Policy
- Attendance Policy
- Prior Learning Assessment Policy
- Language Proficiency Assessment Policy
- Dispute Resolution and Grade Appeal Policy
- Safety Policy
- Office Security
- Release of Staff or Student Personal Information
- Staff Meetings
- Billing for Instructor Services
- Limit to Student Deposits on Account
- Flight Training Administration
- Student Pilot Training Records Administration
- Pilot Training Record (PTR) and Safety
- Time Limits on PTR Entries
- Instructor Comments in Pilot Training Record (QAE)
- Unsafe Student Status
- Instructor Responsibility for Student Log Books Entries
- Instructor Responsibility for Groundschool Records
- Student Identification Documents
- Student Medical Certificates
- Next of Kin—Student or Passenger
- Pilotlog Failure Procedures
- Groundschool Instruction
- Examination Administration
- PART 2 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE CONTROL
- Maintenance Control Manual (Copy)
- List of Effective Pages
- 1. Maintenance Control Manual Administration
- 2. Air Carrier Description
- 3. Personnel
- 3.3. Personnel Qualifications, Authorisations and Records
- 3.4. Training
- 4. Maintenance Policies
- 4.1. Approved Maintenance Schedules
- 4.2. Approved Maintenance Schedule Tolerances
- 4.2.1. General
- 4.2.2. Requirement for a Maintenance Release
- 4.2.3. Airworthiness Directives and Airworthiness Limitation
- 4.2.4. Independent Tracking of Scheduled Check Tasks
- 4.2.5. Calculation of Next-inspection Time
- 4.2.6. Procedures for Invoking Tolerance for Component Tasks (e.g, Engine Overhaul)
- 4.2.7. Procedures for Invoking Tolerance for Scheduled Maintenance Checks (e.g, non-Component Tasks)
- 4.2.8. Procedures for Invoking Tolerances for Aircraft located away from the Main Base
- 4.3. Maintenance Arrangements and/or Contracts
- 4.4. Defect Reporting and Rectification
- 4.4.1. Reporting Defects
- 4.4.2. Removing Aircraft from Service
- 4.4.3. Deferring Defects
- 4.4.4. Deferral of Defects by Flight Instructors
- 4.4.5. Deferral of Defects by the Maintenance Manager
- 4.4.6. Deferred Defect Procedure
- 4.4.7. Rectification of Defects
- 4.4.8. Recurring Defects
- 4.4.9. Service Difficulty Reporting
- 4.5. Elementary Work and Servicing
- 5. Maintenance Planning, Control and Dispatch
- 6. Aircraft Technical Records and Documents
- 6.4. Location of Records
- 7. Quality Assurance Program
- 7.2. Quality Assurance Audit
- 8. Documents Incorporated by Reference
- PART 3 FLIGHT TRAINING OPERATIONS
- Aircraft De-icing
- Flight Training Procedures
- Langley Flying School Flight Rules and Safety Precautions
- Instructor Currency
- Class IV Instructor Supervision
- Enhanced Supervision of Class IV Instructors
- Instructor’s First Flight of the Day
- Flight Training Content and Material
- Pre-departure Requirements for Training Flights
- Pre-boarding Check
- Mandatory Review Training
- Circuit Training
- Circuit Training with Passengers
- Continuous Circuit Supervision Requirements
- 50% Rule
- Simulated Forced Approaches
- Three-strike Rule for Circuit Training on Runway 25
- ATC Instructions to Exit at Taxiway Echo
- Checklist Use—Standards for Use
- First Solo Flight and Newly Soloed Students
- First Solo Flight Administration
- Standards for Solo Release
- Solo Release Check Flights Not Required
- First Solo Flight outside the Circuit (Gates)
- Solo Flight Authorization Standards and Procedures
- CFI Checkrides
- Flight Following and Flight Plan Requirements
- Grass Runway Operations
- Specialty Landing/Takeoff Training
- Use of Handheld Moving Map Devices by Students
- Night Flying
- Tie-down Removal Requirements
- Simulated Forced Approach Practice in Langley Control Zone
- Private Pilot Instrument Training
- Low Flying
- Minimum Fuel Requirement
- Radio Procedures in the Practice Area
- Mandatory Strong-wind Flight Check
- Crosswind Limitation
- Freezing Rain Risk
- Authorized 150NM Cross-country Routes for Private Pilot Students
- Strait of Georgia Restrictions
- Practice Areas
- Forced or Unscheduled Landings
- Birds on Runway
- Mandatory FIC Flight Plan
- Spin Training Standard
- Passengers during Training Flights
- Use of Private Student Aircraft
- Instructor Records
- Abnormal Occurrence
- ATC Incident Reporting
- IFR Training
- Multi-engine Flight Operations (VFR and IFR)
- Weather Minima
- Night Rating and Commercial Pilot Training
- Commercial Pilot Students 300 NM Cross-Country
- Emergency Procedures
PART 1 ADMINISTRATION AND EDUCATION
The standards, practices, procedures and specifications herein published reflect the contents of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).
Amendments to this manual are the duty of the Chief Flying Instructor. A copy will be accessible on the Langley Flying School Website.
Compliance with the operations and procedures contained in this manual are mandatory for all Flight Instructors and staff members. Failure in compliance may result in fines, suspension, or termination.
Amendments to this manual will be made from time to time and come into effect as they are updated on this webpage. A summary of recent changes appears below:
- December 27, 2017: Two-second Rule established as standard for pre-solo performance by student flying Cessna aircraft.
- December 27, 2017: De-icing procedures amended to include 100% Isopropyl and pre-takeoff Carb Heat check.
- October 2, 2017: Conditions of Aircraft Rentals Updated
- August 21, 2017: Authorized Persons' List Updated
- July 30, 2017: Staff meeting information updated regarding scheduled meeting day.
- July 24, 2017: Checkride requirements for Class IV Instructor Ten-hour Rule and Mandatory Upper-air and and Pre-solo Circuit Checkrides amended for ease of administration.
- July 7, 2017: Like added to posting of current Class IV Instructor Direct Supervision Status.
- June 7, 2017: Instructor Aircraft Responsibility List Updated.
- May 15, 2017: Langley Flying School's Language Proficiency Assessment Policy is re-written to reflect changes pertaining to CFI involvemment in the administration of the Langley Flying School English Proficiency Test to candidates assessed as "failed".
- May 15, 2017: First Solo Flight Administration policy and procedures is harmonized with Langley Flying School's Language Proficiency Assessment Policy.
- May 13, 2017: Experience requirements of Class IV Instructors designated as supervisors for the purpose of Enhanced Supervision updated.
- May 02, 2017: Flight Instructor Conflict of Interest provisions modified.
- May 02, 2017: Late Night Operations and Repetitive Night Circuits procedures modified.
- May 09, 2016: Conflict of interests regarding instructors modified.
- February 1, 2016: Person responsible for IT and Data Back-up security updated.
- December 22, 2015: Long Night Cross-country training flight updated to reflect changes in ATC procedures
- October 15, 2015: Creation of rules and procedures governing Commerical Pilot student 300 NM Cross-country flights.
- October 15, 2015: Special Note pertaining to CYR 107 updated to reflect new route.
- June 12, 2015: The Prior Learning Assessment Policy was modified to reflect the creation of a reporting records document.
- May 24, 2015: Training in student aircaft policy amended to include $20 per hour solo supervision fee.
- May 12, 2015: Admission Policy updated for Commercial Pilot Program; reference to mature student removed.
- April 18, 2015: A new 150 NM cross-country course establish to reflect fuel access limitations at Powell River Airport.
- April 14, 2015: The rules of Enhanced Class IV Supervision changed to permit supervision provided by a designated Senior Class IV Instructor.
- March 15, 2015: English Proficiency Assessment Policy established.
- March 15, 2015: Policy requiring Advanced Flight Training Start Authorizations established.
- March 15, 2015: The maximum student-instructor ratio is modified from 20 to 16 students per instructor.
- January 5, 2015: The Nanaimo Airport route is removed from the list of authorized Private Pilot 150NM cross-country routes.
- January 5, 2015: Cautionary note on ATC Instructions to Exit Runway 01 at Echo.
- November 12, 2014: Addition of Ramp Surface Ice as Workplace Safety Threat List item.
- October 24, 2014: Instructor Student Training Records Evaluation (QAE-2) added as monthly quality assurance audit.
- October 21, 2014: Requirements for Level III Class IV Supervsion re-written for clarity.
- September 25, 2014: Reference to the Qualtiy Assurance Master Schedule is added to the Qualtiy Assurance policy and procedures
- September 16, 2014: Emergency Procedures amended to include procedures and quality assurance component.
- September 2, 2014: Tech Log Transcription Procedures amended to include date code.
- August 31, 2014: Three-strike Rule for Circuit Training on Runway 25 added.
- August 15, 2014: Student Withdrawal Policy added.
- August 12, 2014: Policy on the use of Handheld Moving Map Devices added.
- August 5, 2014: Instructor Information for late night operations changed.
- June 28, 2014: Maximum classroom student to Instructor ratio established.
- June 28, 2014: Annual Instructor Performance Review policy added.
- June 24, 2014: Editing of working tech log transcription content.
- June 22, 2014: Ethical conduct provisions extended to non-instructional staff.
- June 13, 2014: Addition of a Prior Learning Assessment Policy.
- June 11, 2014: Refinement of Attendance Policy.
- June 11, 2014: Refinement of Admissions Policy.
- June 7, 2014: Instructor responsibility with respect to no-show fees clarified.
- March 3, 2014: Content reorganzied to include Aircraft Maintenance Control Manual (copy).
- March 2, 2014: Qualifications of Flight Instructors re-written with greater specification for individual programs.
- March 2, 2014: Core polcies for Quality Assurance are introduced including Aircraft Maintenance Control Quality Assurance, and Education Quality Assurance.
- March 2, 2014: Reorganising fire safety responsibilities of the Workplace Safety Officer.
- January 14, 2014: Water-only de-icing prohibted; procedure for pre-takeoff wing inspection also refined.
- January 13, 2014: Creation of the limit of $3000 as the maximum amount a student can deposit on account.
- December 11, 2013: Anytime, Anywhere Rule (Flight Instructor checkride rule) is amended to remove "jump-in" provision; all checkrides must be documented as dual flights.
- December 11, 2013: Spin Training Standards amended to note changes in Flight Rules and Safety Precaution pertaining to spin training (altitude, rotations, and solo requirements).
- December 11, 2013: Diagram for Aircraft Tiedown Removal Requirements updated.
- December 1, 2013: Flight Instructor Responsibility Aircraft Assigment revised
- November 15, 2013: For Flight Instructors, the maximum days worked in a week and maximum work hours per day are established.
- November 15, 2013: Wing check for icing procedures changed; reference to wing check during takeoff roll removed.
- November 15, 2013: First solo standards and requirements reorganized, and "Newly-soloed" training flights defined and standardized.
- November 15, 2013: Creation of the right for Flight Instructors to conduct a check flight for the purpose of assessing safety, including the use of a "jump-in" procedures.
- November 15, 2013: Creation of the requirement for Flight Instructors to maintain Operational Flight Notes.
- July 8, 2013: Creation of Attendance Policy and Grade Appeal Policy.
- July 8, 2013: Journey Log auditing for addition errors described.
- July 8, 2013: Front Desk Position name changed to Administration and Reception.
- July 8, 2013: Reorganization of the Safety Management Officer position.
- July 8, 2013: Reorganization of the Administrative Tasks, including minimum qualifications for those performing the tasks.
- July 8, 2013: Revision numbers added to all standard operating procedures.
- July 1, 2013: Creation of the Senior Educational Administrator position.
- July 1, 2013: Chief Flying Instructor duties to include electronic file backup.
- July 1, 2013: Creation of a Hiring Policy.
- July 1, 2013: Superceded.
- June 20, 2013: The requirements for Flight Instructors regarding the first flight of the day are amended to replace reading and signing staff memos (paper copy), with checking email for staff communications.
- May 2, 2013: Creation of a Student Co-ordinator position, including the requirements and procedures for student meetings and reporting.
- February 1, 2013: Revision tracking number added to the Flight Training Rules and Safety Precautions.
- November 1, 2012: Creation of a Workplace Safety Officer position including protocol for monthly hazard workplace safety inspections and reporting.
- November 1, 2012: Safety policies and procedures reorganized and refined to to reflect PCTIA's bylaw requirements.
- October 31, 2012: Creation of emergency procedures for an earthquake event.
- October 31, 2012: Refinement of emergency procedures for a facilities fire event.
- October 30, 2012: Emergency Evacuation Assembly location changed to reflect closure of "Flights Cafe".
- October 30, 2012: Admission Requirements amended to reflect PCTIA's bylaw requirements.
- October 30, 2012: Student Refund Policy amended to reflect PCTIA's amended bylaws.
- August 26, 2012: Rule regarding release procedure for first-solo flights refined to emphasize the cockpit must remain sterile during the touch-and-go three-count used for a release.
- July 19, 2012: Rule regarding the adding of oil corrected.
- July 19, 2012: Introduction of duties and responsibilities of the Instructor Pilot Qualifications Auditor.
- June 5, 2012: Landing Light Replacement—Journey Log Entry removed.
- June 5, 2012: Groundschool Instruction Billing policy updated.
- June 5, 2012: Introduction of the Restricted Solo Release Rule.
- March 12, 2012: Creation of Ethical Conduct provisions for Flight Instructors.
- January 29, 2012: Introduction of duties and responsibilites of the Technical Log Quality Control Auditor.
- January 29, 2012: Creation of bi-weekly responsibilties of the Aircraft Maintenance Supervisor, to include meeting with the Pilotlog Quality Control Auditor, and CFI/Maintenance Manager reporting.
- January 29, 2012: Creation of duties and responsibilities of the Pilotlog Quality Control Auditor.
- January 29, 2012: Specification of CFI responsibilities with respect to CADORS occurrence monitoring.
- November 28, 2011: Introduction of approved night crossing flight routes for Commercial pilot students.
- July 14, 2011: Introduction of the three stages of Class IV Direct Supervision.
- July 2, 2011: Specification of procedures to confirm transponder malfunction reports from ATC prior to initiating repair/rectification.
- May 10, 2011: Re-write of sentence regarding the completion of the night rating application form.
- May 4, 2011: Clarification of requirements for the Private Pilot 150NM cross-country flight.
- April 4, 2011: The Return to Service Procedure is established, including the responsibilities and tasks required by the person conducting a return to service takes. Reference is made to a checklist that must be posted in the aircraft's Journey Log.
- March 22, 2011: Speciality Landings and Takeoffs training modified; training of this type restricted to after start of navigation training for Private Pilot students.
- December 17, 2010: 50% Rule refined for clarification purposes, with landings beyond the 50% runway length prohibited outright.
Safety is paramount to all flight training operations at all times.
While on duty, all Flight Instructors shall be jointly responsible for all flight safety.
A Flight Instructor authorizing a solo rental or solo training flight is specifically responsible for the safety of that flight.
A Flight Instructor acting as Pilot-in-command is specifically responsible for the safety of that flight.
When safety is perceived as compromised in any training situation, all Flight Instructors have the unquestioned authority to immediately terminate or suspend any operation in which, in the opinion of the Flight Instructor, the safety of the operation is in doubt.
For the purpose of assessing the safety of a flight for which he or she is providing authorizaiton, a Flight Instructor has the unquestioned authority to conduct a check flight anytime or anywhere. All checkrides must be fully documented as a dual instruction flight.
Any pilot who is not an enrolled Langley Flying School student shall sign a Rental Agreement Letter acknowledging that they have a 30 day currency requirement and follow all the Flight Rules and Safety Precautions posted on our website (www.langleyflyingschool.com). For safety reasons, new renters are required to do a check ride with a Flight Instructor and no less than one (1) circuit at Langley Airport (CYNJ).
Langley Flying School is actively involved in three quality assurance programs that have similar, yet separate, areas of focus:
- Aircraft Maintenance Quality Assurance (AQA)
- Quality Assurance Education (QAE)
- Flight Operations Quality Assurance (OQA)
AQA focuses on the aircraft maintenance control system employed by the school, QAE focuses on education practices, and OQA focuses on all aspects of flight operations.
The aircraft maintenance control system quality assurance program originates from the Canadian Aviation Regulations and is an intrinsic administrative feature of all commercial aircraft operators in Canada; in the case of Flight Training Units such as Langley Flying School, aircraft maintenance control quality assurance programs are specified by Canadian Aviation Regulation 406.47. Generally speaking, quality assurance must be practiced on all elements of Langley Flying School’s core document on aircraft maintenance, the Langley Flying Schools Maintenance Control Manual, which for regulatory reasons must remain in paper format, but which is copied and posted as a Part II of these Standard Operating Procedures. AQA therefore applies to all policies and procedures contained in Part II of these Standard Operating Procedures, entitled Maintenance Control Manual (Copy).
By comparison, Langley Flying School’s Quality Assurance Education Program, was added in January, 2014 as a requirement of private career training schools in British Columbia, and originates from the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and its administrative agency for private career training schools, the Private Career Training Institutions Agency. AGA therefore applies to all policies and procedures contained in Part II of these Standard Operating Procedures, which is entitled Education and Administration
A final program quality assurance program administered by Langley Flying School is the Flight Operations Quality Assurance Program, which focuses on the policies and procedures governing flight training operations. OGA therefore applies to Part III of these Standard Operating Procedures, entitled Flight Training Operations. While the Canadian Aviation Regulations establish basic standards which govern Flight Training Units in Canada, the vast majority of the policies and procedures contain in Part III has been created by Langley Flying School as a mean of creating continuity in safe and efficient flight operations over time.
Strategies for Quality Assurance
A key feature of all three quality assurance systems—that is, the Aircraft Maintenance Control Quality Assurance Program (AQA) system, the Quality Assurance Education Program (QAE), and the Flight Operations Quality Assurance Program (OQA)—is the use of front-line administrators and flight instructors as the primary players in quality assurance audit processes. For all three systems, then, a central strategy is the conduct of routine and on-going audits conducted by flight instructors and administrators of the educational/administrative, maintenance control, and flight operation procedures and practices.
Flight Instructors as Auditors
Langley Flying School is of the view that the best category of personnel for conducting both AQA, OQA and QAE auditing is line Flight Instructors. Flight Instructors have first-hand experience of policies and procedures, and they are best suited for evaluating the conformity of themselves and their colleagues with these policies and procedures. To ensure the quality of on-going audits are not diminished by conflicting interest, the AQA and QAE auditing procedures have clear protocols that ensure audit sampling is governed by the principle of random selection, and that all records subject to auditing are are copied and retained on file in support of the auditor’s findings.
Modular Method of Auditing
All policies and procedures which are subject to the AQA and QAE procedures have been divided in modular audit tasks that take the form of a survey that is completed by the assigned auditor. The survey is completed electronically on line, and the results of the survey are converted, when possible, into a table analysis that is reviewed by the Maintenance Control Manager or the Chief Flying Instructor.
Here is a target schedule for the modular audit tasks:
- Instructor Qualifications Audit (QAE-3)
- Instructor Comments in Pilot Training Records Audit (QAE-1)
- Instructor Student Training Records Evaluation (QAE-2)
- Monthly Safety Inspection and Audit (QAE-2)
- Electronic Data Back-up and Recovery Plan Testing and Evaluation (QAE-18)
- Attendance Records Audit (QAE-6)
- Safety Policy Evaluation (QAE-15)
- Safety Procedures Audit (QAE-16)
- Assessment of Admissions Policy and Procedures (QAE-4)
- Dispute Resolution and Grade Appeal Policy and Procedures Evaluation (QAE-20)
- Suspension and Dismissal Policy and Procedures Evaluation (QAE 9)
- Annual Attendance Records Evaluation (QAE-6)
- Recommendations and Requirements for Improvements Evaluation (QAE-30)
- Student Administrative Records Audit (QAE-17)
- Student Records Storage Evaluation (QAE-19)
- Instructor's File Review (QAE-13)
- Annual Instructor Performance Review Evaluation (QAE-33)
- Student Feedback Systems Evlauation (QAE-55)
- Instructor Feedback System Evaluation (QAE-65)
The audit module specifies the policy and procedure to be audit, the random sample selection protocol to be following, and the determination of the finding as to whether the findings of the auditor are in conformity with the policies and procedures, or not in conformity with policies and procedures, as the case may be. The module audit is initiated by the Chief Flying Instructor through an email request to the person conducting the audit, a specification of the random sample rules, and a date for completion.
The annual schedule of modular audit tasks is specified in the Quality Assurance Master Schedule.
In addition to modular auditing, Langley Flying School continuously monitors a series of on-going quality assurance reporting systems which are directly inputted into the corrective action system:
- Anonymous Safety Reports (OQA)
- Civil Aviation Daily Occurrence Reporting System (CADORS) Reports (OQA)
- Near Mid-air Collision Reports (OQA)
- Facilities Improvement Suggestions (QAE)
- Aircraft Improvement Suggestions (OQA)
- Services/Organization Improvement Suggestions (OQA)
- Instructor Evaluations (air and ground) (OQA)
- Student Survey--Program Reviews (QAE)
Corrective Action Process
Centralized Rectification of Non-conformance
If non-conformance is identified during the course of an audit or evaluation, or indeed during normal administrative or operational activity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report is completed. This report then triggers the creation of investigation by the MCM or CFI regarding the root-cause of the instance, and the development of short-term and long-term corrective action. All instances non-conformity are tracked and documented in a central record referred to as the Langley Flying School Record of Corrective Actions (RCA); the RCA is accessible to staff and authorized external agency via the website.
Non-conformance and Root Cause Analysis
When an instance of non-conformance is identified during an audit, an analytical process is initiated to determine the root cause of the non-conformance; the root cause analysis is the responsibility of persons responsible for the quality assurance—that is, the Maintenance Control Manager in the case of the AQA, and the Chief Flying Instructor, in the case of QAE and OQA.
Short-term and Long-term Rectifications
When an instance of non-conformance is found in the audit process, the Maintenance Control Manager and Chief Flying Instructor are responsible to determine both a short-term and long-term rectification. The short-term rectification is devised and deployed as quickly as deemed necessary for the purpose of preventing immediate repetition of the nonconformity. In contrast, the long-term rectification builds on the root cause analysis, so as to ensure repetition of the nonconformity will not occur in the future.
Recommendations and Requirements for Improvements
Recommendations and requirements arising from the Program Advisory Committee and Accreditation will be track and resolved through the Langley Flying School Record of Corrective Actions (RCA).
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-30) to ensure that recommendations and requirements arising from the Program Advisory Committee and Accreditation were properly tracked and resolved through RCAs. Identification of non-conformance, and the record of corrective action is documented as required (Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report).
The following link provides a summary of the administrative organization of Langley Flying School:
The President is responsible for the shareholders for Langley Flying School’s executive decision-making in regard to financial planning, expenditure, and overall allocation of resources. This includes responsibility for preparation of financial documents for the school, as well as financial reporting to government and non-government agencies.
The President is also the Responsible Executive in accordance with Part 1, Subpart 6 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
The minimum qualifications for the President are a valid Class 1 or Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
The Senior Educational Administrator (SEA) is responsible to the President for the quality of education and training systems at Langley Flying School, as well as the evaluation of the instructional staff.
The SEA is additionally responsible to ensure the school conforms with the Standards for Registered and Accredited Institutions as established in Part F of the Private Career Training Institutions Agency of British Columbia (PCTIA) Bylaws.
The minimum qualifications for the SEA are a valid Class 1 or Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
The Chief Flying Instructor (CFI) is responsible for the overall safety and effectiveness of Langley Flying School training operations and procedures, and is responsible to ensure that all training activity is in conformity with the requirements of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
The primary duties and responsibilities of the CFI are published in Part IV of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
The CFI is also the Maintenance Manager, the primary duties and responsibilities for which are published in Part IV of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
The CFI is also the Accountable Executive , the primary duties and responsibilities for which are published in Part IV of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
The CFI is responsible for the Langley Flying School Safety Policy.
The CFI is responsible for the completion of annual performance evaluations of instructional and full-time staff members.
The CFI is responsible to monitor CADORS reporting on a daily basis so as to detect reported occurrences of interest to the safety and efficient flight training operations of Langley Flying School. In the case of Langley Flying School aircraft incidents, the CFI shall collect data and statements related to reported occurrences and prepare a written analysis related to safety and efficiency and submit a copy to the Primary Transport Canada Inspector. A record of these analyses shall be maintained on electronic file (L Drive).
The CFI is responsible to ensure all critical electronic file and data systems are backup daily at a remote site. Critical files and data include accounting, student files, student training records, aircraft maintenance, statutory documents required by Flight Training Units in accordance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations. For the current data back-up service provider, see Data Back-up.
The minimum qualifications for the CFI are a valid Class 1 or Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
The primary function of the Associate Chief Flying Instructor (ACFI) is to provide a second layer of supervision of Langley Flying School’s day-to-day operations. The priorities of the ACFI are as follows:
- Safety in operations.
- Conformity of operations with the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
- Effectiveness of operations.
The ACFI exercises the authorities of the Chief Flying Instructor (CFI) in instances where the Chief Flying Instructor is absent, such as days off, vacations, and holidays.
The ACFI also exercises authorities of the CFI when assigned tasks such as incident investigation, simulated flight tests, or school project assignment.
Where the ACFI has concerns with a staff member pertaining to training operations and procedures, the communications will be conducted in a friendly and constructive fashion, and will be conducted in private. In the event of unsatisfactory resolution between the ACFI and the staff member, the ACFI will consult with the Chief Flying Instructor.
The minimum qualifications for the ACFI are a valid Class 1 or Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
The Aircraft Maintenance Manager (AMM) responsible to the President for the operations and procedures of the maintenance control system in accordance with Canadian Aviation Regulation (CARs) 604.35.
On a daily basis, the AMM will review the maintenance status of school aircraft, monitoring both in-phase and out-of-phase maintenance tasks, as well as aircraft defects.
The AMM is responsible for maintenance control training in accordance with S. 3.4 of the Maintenance Control Manual (MCM).
The AMM is responsible for maintaining and revising the Approved Maintenance Schedules for aircraft in accordance with S. 4 of the MCM.
The AMM is responsible for maintenance arrangements and controls with approved maintenance service providers in accordance with S. 4.3 of the MCM.
The AMM is responsible for the system of aircraft defect reporting and rectification in accordance with S. 4.4 of the MCM.
The AMM is responsible for aircraft maintenance planning, control, and dispatch in accordance with S. 5 of the MCM.
The AMM is responsible for maintaining aircraft technical records and documents in accordance with S. 6 of the MCM.
The AMM is responsible for the aircraft maintenance quality assurance program in accordance with S. 7 of the MCM.
The minimum qualification of the AMM is a valid Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating.
The Chief Groundschool Instructor (CGI) is responsible for the overall organization, implementation, and effectiveness of the Langley Flying School groundschool programs.
Specifically, the CGI is responsible to ensure that:
- Registration of students in non-professional pilot courses is properly recorded and documented.
- Registration of students in professional pilot courses (Commercial Pilot, Multi-engine Class, Instrument, and Instructor Ratings) are properly documented in Student Enrolment Contracts, as prescribed by PCTIA, and that this document is properly signed by both students and a representative of Langley Flying School.
- Student data derived from registration is accurately transcribed onto the electronic Pilotlog.
- Records of student attendance are properly recorded and maintained.
- Sectional quizzes and final examinations for each groundschool section are properly prepared and administered within the course.
- Student grades are properly recorded and maintained on Pilotlog.
- Groundschool scheduling of instructional staff is prepared for each running of a groundschool.
- The books and supplies for groundschool students are properly stored and ready for the start of each groundschool class.
The minimum qualifications for the CGI are a valid Class 1 or Class 2 Flight Instructor Rating.
Staff Flight Instructors collectively form the core of Langley Flying School and comprise the front line to ensure that all training activity is conducted safely and efficiently.
Flight Instructors shall ensure all flight operations under your supervision and control are conducted safely and in accordance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
Flight Instructors shall take whatever actions they feel are necessary to terminate or suspend any flight operation activity that is unsafe or in which safety is or may be jeopardized.
Flight Instructors shall conduct instruction in accordance with the content of
- Various government publications specified for Flight Training Units in the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
- Langley Flying School's publications provided to students to facilitate and standardize instruction received at the School;
- Langley Flying School Flight Rules and Safety Precautions;
- Langley Flying School's Standard Operating Procedures published on-line;
- Policies and procedures established in Staff Memoranda, Flight Operations Notices and informally during Staff Meetings.
Flight Instructors shall conduct flight operations in accordance with Langley Flying School's Maintenance Control Manual.
Flight Instructors shall ensure instructional services are properly entered and recorded in the Langley Flying School system of accounting.
Flight Instructors shall ensure that payment for instructional services is collected and processed at the termination of each flight.
Flight Instructors shall ensure that their personal activities and interests are not in conflict with the activities and interests of Langley Flying School and its staff members. Working as fulltime, part time, recreational or volunteer with any group, club , school or organization which is providing aircraft renting, time sharing , flight/ground/simulator training, will consider as conflict of interests.
Flight Instructors shall ensure that they report for duty in a timely fashion for scheduled training flights and groundschool classes.
Flight Instructors shall ensure that actively maintain Operational Flight Notes, which contains the date of the training flight, the students name, a list of exercises completed, and any raw notes taken during the flight pertaining to training activity; Operational Flight Notes shall be retained as a secure and confidential training record so long as the Flight Instructor is on staff at Langley Flying School
Flight Instructors shall keep confidential any information related to student performance or evaluation.
Flight Instructors shall immediately advise the Chief Flying Instructor of any changes in the status or validity of your ratings, license and medical certificate.
Flight Instructors are prohibited from working (on-duty or ready-for-duty at the school) in excess of twelve hours within any twenty-four hour period, except when authorized by the Chief Flying Instructor.
Flight Instructors are responsible to keep their offices clean and functional, ensuring that their space can be used at anytime by their fellow staff members. Instructors are responsible to ensure their office floor is vacuumed, desk surfaces are free of dust and debris, and the windows in their office are cleaned.
Flight Instructors shall ensure their personal Flight Instructor records on file with the Chief Flying Instructor are kept up-to-date in accordance with the requirements for Flight Instructor Records.
Flight Instructors are responsible to maintain the technical records of the aircraft for which they have been assigned responsibility. On a weekly basis, and for the aircraft they are assigned, Flight Instructors shall:
- Conduct an audit of fleet Journey Logs for entry error. The standard for recording an audit for entry errors is that the correction can be traced back to the original error by a third party reading the Journey Log.
- Transcribe maintenance entries from the aircraft Journey Logs to the Technical Logs Working Copy in accordance with the section entitled Aircraft Technical Logs Administration outlined in this manual.
All Flight Instructors must retain a valid Class 1 Medical Certificate.
All Flight Instructors must hold a valid Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating.
The minimum additional qualification of Flight Instructors conducting training for students enrolled in the Instrument Rating Program is a valid Group 1 Instrument Rating.
The minimum additional qualification of Flight Instructors conducting training for students enrolled in the Multi-engine Class Rating Program is a valid Multi-engine Class Rating, 50 hours multi-engine experience, and 10 hours experience on the Piper Seneca.
The minimum qualification of Flight Instructors conducting training for students enrolled in the Instructor Rating Program is a valid Class 1 Instructor Rating.
The aircraft Journey Logs must be audited on a regular basis to ensure addition errors with respect to the aircraft’s total air time are corrected. Air time of the aircraft is the basis for most scheduled maintenance, and therefore accuracy is crucial. Addition errors are common, especially by new student pilots.
Air time is the time and aircraft is in the air (takeoff to landing), which is different from flight time (start of taxi for takeoff to end of taxi for parking, including the air time). At the end of each flight, the crew must write the air time of the flight, and this must be added to the total accumulated air time of the aircraft (total air time). Here is an example of the calculation:
To begin the audit, scan the Journey Log for the preceding audit corrective entry; the new audit should then begin back at the next flight following this corrective entry (the start of the unaudited portion). When an addition error is identified in the Journey Log, it must be clearly marked and the corrective factor noted. The marking is made next to the erred calculation, next to the incorrect total air time with an asterisk or star shape. The corrective factor is then written in the left margin of the page next to the entry. Here is an example:
When all of the errors are determined since the previous corrective entry, a new corrective entry is written, dated, and signed. Here is an example:
For better clarity, here is a re-write of the above entry:
The minimum qualification of Journey Log auditing for addition error is experience as Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating, or written approval from the CFI.
The Pilotlog Quality Control Audit (PQCA) task is a quality control audit of the Out-of-phase items listed on Pilotlog to ensure that difference in air times have not developed between the air time depicted the Pilotlog alerting system, on the one hand, and the actual dates and times derived from the aircraft Journey Logs. It is not feasible to check all Pilotlog out-of-phase tasks all the time, but if a difference has developed, this will show up in large time-span out-of-phase tasks, such as engine overhaul intervals, which are typically span over 2000 hours. Accordingly, this task requires the person to compare the Pilotlot time to engine overhaul with the actual time of overhaul originating from the Journey Log.
The PACA sequence is as follows:
- For the aircraft assigned by the Maintenance Manager, obtain two screenshots, the first showing the current total airtime on the aircraft, and the second showing the time before engine overhaul. These can be printed or saved in an electronic file as JPEG files, clearly labeled.
- Using the Working Tech Log for the aircraft in question, determine the date at which the engine overhaul occurred, then go to the appropriate Journey Log and scan or copy the engine installation entry with the 0-timed engine.
- Then get the current Journey Log for the aircraft and scan or copy the last entry in the Journey Log, showing the current total air time.
- All of this tasks have to been done in between flights, so it is best to do them at the beginning or end of the day when the aircraft isn’t being
- For each aircraft, use the Engine Log to find the original entry in the Journey Log showing the installation of a zero-timed engine.
- When the entry is found, photo copy the entry as proof of the actual air time at overhaul.
- Using the actual time at overhaul (as photocopied), calculate the actual time at which the next overhaul is required.
- Compare the Journey Log calculation above with the Pilotlog prediction, and the difference constitutes the variance.
- Put the calculation in the body of an email to be submitted to the AMM; be sure to attach the supporting electronic images/files as these can be reviewed by an external auditor. The standard is to make it possible that anyone can confirm your finding by looking at the images/files.
- This audit task must be accomplished within 7 days of its assignment (deadline).
The minimum qualification of PQC audit is experience as Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating, or written approval from the CFI.
All entries in the aircraft Journey Log pertaining to maintenance must be transcribed into an electronic word documents, called Working Technical Logs (WTLs). The Working Technical Log (WTLs) for each aircraft is maintained on the L-drive under the folder “Tech Logs Working Copies.” The WTL entries are subsequently cut and paste into the appropriate aircraft technical logs, which are in turn printed, scanned, and eventually stored electronically as PDF documents. The original WTL entries are therefore critical to maintenance control. The assignment of aircraft responsibility for this task is found on the Aircraft Responsibility Listing. On occasion this tasked is assigned to non-instructional administrative staff.
While entries in the WTLs should be done weekly, there must never be more than a 3-week delay in transcribing these entries from the dated original entry in the Journey Log.
Here are the guidelines for WTL entries:
All entries in the Journey Log shall be transcribed in the WTLs, excluding individual flight details (excluded also are the associated DICO, fuel, and oil entries) and entries for audit corrections. All other entries must be transcribed, regardless of content. The entry shall include the following:
- The date of the original entry;
- The aircraft’s air time at the time of entry;
- The engine time since overhaul at the time of entry;
- An accurate reproduction of the content of the entry (description);
- The four-letter identification of the aircraft;
- The initials of the person making the transcription;
- The date of the transcription, using the date code DDMMYY;
- The name of the person making the original entry (first initial and last name);
- And the license number of the person making the original entry.
The person making the entry must always separate sentences contained in the entry using double spaces; also, the “return” key must never be used. At the end of the description portion of the entry, the employee transcribing the entry shall insert the aircraft four-letter identifier and the initials of the employee making the transcription.
The following are examples of WTL entries:
Date of Entry
Total Air Time
Time Since Engine Overhaul –Air Time minus (-):
Person making Entry
May 8, 2014
Landing light wiring replaced from bulb to firewall, system tests ok. Broken wire on master contactor repaired. The maintenance described has been performed to the applicable standards of airworthiness. GNIC – KDY 060614
Valley Aero Engines Ltd.
M12345 AMO 6-86
May 9, 2014
Landing light u/s, wiring from bulb to firewall replaced, master contactor wire broken repaired – tested and found sat for type. The maintenance described has been performed in accordance with the applicable standards of airworthiness. GNIC – KDY 060614
Valley Aero Engines Ltd.
12345 AMO 6-86
May 15, 2014
Intermittent start condition on magneto switch. No start condition, then start at CYNJ then again at CYCW. Aircraft grounded until intermitting condition rectified. GNIC – KDY 060614
Langley Flying School, Inc.
T. Larkin CA12345
May 15, 2014
Starting problem repaired. Also loose wires inspected – ok at this time. The maintenance described has been performed in accordance with the applicable standards of airworthiness. GNIC- KDY 060614
Valley Aero Engines Ltd.
May 16, 2014
Gyro vacuum reading only 4.5” MG @ 200RPM during run up. No additional flight restrictions. Defect deferred. Rectify by May 19, 2014. GNIC – AP
Langley Flying School, Inc.
D. Page CA12345
Those making entries in the Working Technical Logs must keep in mind that the accuracy of the transcriptions is crucial for aviation safety. When the maintenance history of an aircraft is examined, the transcribed entries will be the primary source of data in making any determination.
In the event of an illegible entry, the person making the transcription should first consult with an Flight Instructor for assistance. If this is not possible or successful, the confusing entry should be marked with repeated question marks (?????). These will be rectified by the Aircraft Maintenance Supervisor. Here is an example of transcribing an illegible entry:
July 10, 2014
No start condition: No spark??? Aircraft removed form service. GODP JC 150714
Langley Flying School, Inc.
Tom Larkin CA12345
The minimum qualification of a person performing WTL entries is experience as Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating, or written approval from the Maintenance Manager.
The Working Technical Logs Quality Control Audit (TLQCA) is a task conducted weekly to ensure the quality and accuracy of the Working Technical Logs (WTLs). It is essentially a “double check” whereby the person performing this tasks reviews the recent transcription made in WTLs, and compares them with the original entries contained the aircraft’s Journey Log accuracy. When errors are discovered, they are corrected for the assigned aircraft.
For each aircraft, the TLQC Auditor will compare the electronic transcriptions by Flight Instructors with the entries contained in the aircraft Journey Logs to ensure they are completed accurately and in accordance with the standards of Aircraft Technical Logs Administration section of the Langley Flying School Standard Operating Procedures.
When this inspection is completed, the TCQC Auditor will indicate completion of a quality control check by inserting their initials after the initials of the person making the entries. Below is an example of a quality assurance entry by the TLQC Auditor:
May 23, 2014
50 hour oil change W80 Aeroshell new oil filter installed ES48110, spark plugs serviced. A/C ground run and found sat for type. The maintenance described has been performed in accordance with the applicable standards of airworthiness. FKKF – KDY 300514 DMP
Valley Aero Engines
In the event of continued problems with the quality of transcription work of individuals, the TCQC will bring those problems first to the attention of the individual; if the problems persist, concerns shall be raised with the Aircraft Maintenance Manager.
The minimum qualification of a person performing the TLQC Audit is experience as Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating.
Instructor Pilot Qualifications Audit (QAE-3)
The QAE audit is an independent examination of the Instructor Records file located in the office of the Chief Flying Instructor (CFI) for the purpose of ensuring that staff ratings and medical certificates are current. At completion of this audit, circulate an email report to all Flight Instructors (instructors@langleyflyingschool), consisting of staff whose qualification certificates are scheduled to expire at the end of the month period. This reporting shall be in the form of a group e-mail.
The email report must be circulated to all flight instructors within seven days of being assigned the IPQ audit.
The Instructor Records file is a red binder located in the CFI’s office in the book stack above the desk.
Establish the Instructor’s Training Record while under Direct Supervision document for each Class IV Instructor is up-to-date by showing the document that is on file and having the Class IV examine and verify correctness and currency. When this is done, send an email to the CFI with the statement that the Instructor’s Training Record while under Direction Supervision document is up-to-date for all of the Class IV Instructors.
For each staff Flight Instruction, examine the copes of updated licences, ratings, and medical certificate that expiry dates have not been exceeded. Where a rating or medical is scheduled to lapse at the end of the current month, include details sufficient to circulate a medical certificate to all Flight Instructors, using the following format:
To all instructors,
This email is a reminder to all instructors of their license expiry dates.
--Medical: Dave (expiring August 1st).
--Instructor Rating: None.
--Instructor Rating: Frank (expiring August 1st)
The minimum qualification of the AMS is experience as Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating.
The task of Student Co-ordinator (SC) is periodically assigned to a Flight Instructor by the Chief Flying Instructor. The Flight Instructor assigned this task must schedule, advertise/promote, and co-ordinate a Student Meeting, the purpose of which is to review students opinions, concerns, suggestions, etc., related to the quality of training services provided by the school, staff, and equipment.
Advance notice to students of an upcoming Student Meeting will be posted two weeks in advance of a scheduled meeting, the meetings must be student directed, and the SC shall report a summary of discussions to the Chief Flying Instructor via a e-mail memo within 3 days.
The minimum qualification of the SC task experience as Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, or Class 4 Flight Instructor Rating.
The training unit shall maintain the following aviation publications, accessible via internet or in paper format, to both Flight Instructors and Students:
Canada Flight Supplement (on board each aircraft)
Flight Test Guides
Flight Test Reports
Study and Reference Guides
Private Pilot Program
Admission into the Private Pilot Program is guided generally by the requirements to hold a Private Pilot Licence, and these must be considered with respect to such variable factors such as medical requirements, expected pace of flight training, the age at time of enrollment, and the minimum age requirements to hold the Student Pilot Permit (14 years of age), the Recreational Pilot Permit (16 years of age), and the Private Pilot Licence (17 years of age). Age considerations must in turn be related to the validity dates of written examinations and flight tests.
Commercial Pilot Program
Admission to groundschool: completion of the Private Pilot Written Examination. Admission to Air Instruction: completion of the Private Pilot Licence, valid Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
Multi-engine Class Rating Program
Valid Commercial or Private Pilot Licence, valid Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
Instrument Rating Program
Valid Commercial Pilot Licence, valid Category 1 or 3 Medical Certificate.
Instructor Rating Program
A valid Commercial Pilot Licence or Airline Transport Licence, a valid Category 1 Medical Certificate.
In the case of the Private Pilot and Commercial Pilot Programs, admission and completion requirements are reviewed collectively with students during the first session of groundschool. In the case of the Multi-engine Class Rating Program, the Instrument Rating Program, and the Flight Instructor Program, admission and completion requirements are reviewed individually with students at the first meeting.
In cases where admission qualification is in doubt, the Chief Flying Instructor is consulted.
At a minimum of once a year, the Student Survey for Program Review is administered to students, and they are asked to evaluate the accuracy of information regarding the admission to the program in which they are currently enrolled. The result are monitor so as to permit a qualitative evaluation of the policy and procedures. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Additionally, at a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-4) to ensure the information regarding admissions presented on the LFS website is accurate and up to date, and in conformity with admissions information posted on PCTIA’s website for LFS. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Requests to Start Advanced Training
Advanced training refers to Commercial Pilot, Multi-engine, Instrument, or Instructor Training.
Before students can begin advanced training, the Student Enrollment Contract and Aircraft and Simulator Rental/Utilization Contract must be properly executed by Langley Flying School and the student, a copy must be provided to the student, and a copy be scanned and placed on the student file.
To ensure this procedure is properly adhered to, a Flight Instructor is only authorized to begin advanced training after authorization is provided by the Chief Flying Instructor. This authorization is provided through the completion of Flight Training Authorization form that is linked on the school’s website under the Staff and Administration dropdown feature.
Note that Request to Start Advanced Training is not necessary for student who begin Night training or VFR-over-the-top training who indicate they do not have intentions to be enroll in the Commercial Pilot program.
Refund Policy (PTR)
- A student may be entitled to a refund of tuition fees in the event that:
- The student provides written notice to the institution that he or she is withdrawing from the program; or
- The institution provides written notice to the student advising that the student has been dismissed from the program.
- The written notice of withdrawal or dismissal may be delivered in any manner provided that a receipt or other verification is available that indicates the date on which the notice is delivered.
- The notice of withdrawal or dismissal is deemed to be effective from the date it is delivered.
- The refund to which a student is entitled is calculated on the total tuition fees due under the contract. Where total tuition fees have not yet been collected, the institution is not responsible for refunding more than has been collected to date and a student may be required to make up for monies due under the contract.
- If the institution has received fees in excess of the amount it is entitled to under the student contract, the excess amount must be refunded.
- Refund policy for students:
- Refunds before the program of study begins:
- If written notice of withdrawal is received by the institution within 7 days after the contract is made, and before the commencement of the period of instruction specified in the contract, the institution may retain 5% of the total tuition and fees due under the contract to a maximum of $250.
- If written notice of withdrawal is received by the institution 30 days or more before the commencement of the period of instruction specified in the contract and more than 7 days after the contract was made, the institution may retain 10% of total tuition only due under the contract to a maximum of $1000.
- Subject to Section 6.1.1., if written notice of withdrawal is received by the institution less than 30 days before the commencement of the period of instruction specified in the contract, and more than 7 days after the contract was made, the institution may retain 20% of the total tuition only, due under the contract to a maximum of $1300.
- Refunds after the program of study starts:
- If written notice of withdrawal is received by the institution or a student is dismissed up to and including 10% of the period of instruction specified in the contract has elapsed, the institution may retain 30% of the tuition due under the contract.
- If written notice of withdrawal is received by the institution, or a student is dismissed where more than 10% and up to and including 30% of the period of instruction specified in the contract has elapsed, the institution may retain 50% of the tuition due under the contract.
- If a student withdraws or is dismissed where more than 30% of the period of instruction specified in the contract has elapsed, no refund is required.
- Refunds before the program of study begins:
- Where a student did not meet the institutional and/or program specific minimum requirements for admission through no misrepresentation or fault of their own, the institution must refund all tuition and fees paid under the contract, less the applicable non-refundable student application or registration fee.
- Where a student withdraws or is dismissed from their program, they are entitled to 100% refund of any as-yet to be received consumables that have been pre-paid.
- Where a student withdraws or is dismissed from their program after receiving technical equipment from the institution free of charge:
- The student must return the equipment unopened or as issued within 14 calendar days; and
- If the student fails to return the equipment as set out above, the institution may deduct the reasonable cost of the equipment from any amount to be refunded to the student.
- Refunds owed to students must be paid within 30 days of the institution receiving written notification of withdrawal and all required supporting documentation, or within 30 days of an institution’s written notice of dismissal.
- Where the delivery of the program of study is through home study or distance education, refunds must be based on the percent of the program of study completed at the rates as set out in Section 7.
Employee Files Policy
Each employee of Langley Flying School has an employee file which contains the the following documentation:
- Job Description;
- Signed contract with School, in the case of Flight Instructors;
- Evidence of qualifications/licenses, in the case of Flight Instructors;
- Annual performance review, in the case of Flight Instructors;
With the exception of Instructor credentials (pilot licence, ratings, and medical certificates), all employee records are PDF-scanned to the secure electronic file system. Employee files can only be accessed by the Chief Flying Instructor and the Associate Chief Flying Instructor through restricted file serve rules of access.
Instructor credentials are maintained in an accessible binder located in the Associate Chief Flying Instructor’s office to permit regular auditing. When unoccupied, the office is locked. The Chief Flying Instructor maintains a current record of scheduled credential expiry dates for each Instructor.
As required employee documents to be scanned are first sent to the "common drive" located on the server as PDF documents; the person performing the scanning task then manual moves the PDF copies to the Admin Staff file located on the restricted L: Drive. Once the success of the scan transfer is confirmed, the original paper copies are shredded.
All employee documents or copies of documents are protected and paper copies shall never be left in any office or on any desk unless directly supervised by a Chief Flying Instructor or the Associate Chief Flying Instructor. Normal use of employee documents should be through electronic format on a computer screen, and when not in use, the file must be closed so as not to be displayed in a computer screen.
At a minimum of once a month, an audit is conducted of Instructor credentials (QAE-3) to ensure all Instructor qualification are current, and notices are sent to those Instructors whose qualification expire at the end of the month.
Additionally, at a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted of employee files other than Instructor credentials to ensure the (QAE-13) to ensure that employee files contain the specified documentation listed above.
In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Student Files Policy
For students enrolled in the Commercial Pilot Program, the Multi-engine Class Rating Program, the Instrument Rating Program, and the Instructor Rating program, their student file must contain the following:
- Student enrolment contract
- Evidence of the student having met all admission requirements;
- Financial records including payment and refund records;
- Attendance records, in the form of letter of recommend for Transport Canada flight tests or written examinations, as applicable.
- Documentation of any disputes, grade appeals, or dismissal; and
- Copies of valid study permits and/or other documents where required for international students.
All student records that are not contained in Pilot Log must be PDF-scanned to the secure electronic file system. Student documentation required to be copied on student files will be placed by the instructor or staff member in the secure scan box located in the main reception area. Once a week, this files will be examined and scanned and stored as required into the appropriate student file. The documents to be scanned are first sent to the "common drive" located on the server as PDF documents; the person performing the scanning task then manual moves the PDF copies to the Student Files folder located on the L: drive. Access to all server documents are restricted to Flight Instructors and administrative staff. Once the success of the scan transfer is confirmed, the original paper copies are shredded.
All student documents or copies of documents are protected and paper copies shall never be left in any office or on any desk unless directly supervised by a Flight Instructor or staff member; when direct supervision of a student file is not possible, the document must be shredded..
Normal use of student documents should be through electronic format on a computer screen, and when not in use, the file must be closed so as not to be displayed in a computer screen.
Groundschool records of any sort are considered to be part of student files and shall be treated confidentially as required by this section; accordingly, groundschool records related to student performance shall not be left in public areas of the school without direct supervision by staff member.
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-15) to ensure that student files conform with PCTIA requirements . In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Student Records Storage Policy
Pilot training records are stored electronically in Pilotlog. At the completion of training, the data is printed and submitted to Transport Canada. For students who do not complete their training, training records remain stored electronically in Pilotlog, and other student documentation (with the exception of personal identification documents) is PDF-scanned an retained on a secure file server (L: Drive). As of 2014, Pilotlog contains training records extending back 11 years. The PDF-scanning procedures began in 2012 when all non-training documents on “active” student files were scanned and shredded. Full student records prior to Pilotlog (for the approximate period of 1994 through 2003), less completed training records submitted to Transport Canada, remain in physical file form in a secure location at the school. All files have been retained, and there is no expunging practiced. All student training records are regarded as the property of students.
For a description of student file manangement practices, see the Student File Policy. Students are permitted full access to their student files, and copying service is provided at $1.00 per four pages.
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-19) to ensure that student files stored in accordance with this policy. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
There are two types of hiring procedures in place at Langley Flying School—Internal hiring and external hiring. Internal hiring involves the hiring and promotion of staff currently employed by the school; internal hiring also includes the recruitment and of flight and ground instructors from graduates of the Langley Flying School’s Flight Instructor Rating Program (FIRP). When suitable internal recruitment is not possible owing, for example, to a lack of experienced or qualified candidates, Langley Flying School adopts an external hiring process where recruitment outside the FIRP pool.
Internal hiring processes that entail the hiring of Flight Instructor are initiated by the Chief Flight Instructor (CFI) based on the successful performance assessment of FIRP graduates. A successful performance assessment centers on a positive evaluation of a graduate’s safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in demonstrated flight training operations. The CFI may consult with the Associate Chief Flight Instructor (ACFI), as well as the Senior Flight Instructors, as required, but this consultation is commonly informal in nature, and offers of employment are made directly to selected candidates by the CFI.
Internal hiring of positions other than Flight Instructors, are initiated by either the CFI or the ACFI, and these are predominantly non-instructional, administrative positions. Internal hiring typically entail mutual, yet informal consultations between the CFI and ACFI.
External hiring is undertaken when suitable FIRP graduates are not available. The position is posted on the Langley Flying School website, and qualified applicants are interviewed by a committee composed the CFI, the ACFI, and a Senior Instructor. The final decision with respect to offers of employment is made by the CFI, after consulting with the interview committee.
Instructor Annual Performance Review Policy
Instructor performance reviews are conducted annually by the Chief Flying Instructor or the Associate Chief Flying Instructor.
The performance reviews will focus on the general impressions regarding the instructors effectiveness, safety record, and adherence to standard operating procedures. The performance reviews will also be based on a survey of student evaluations, both in the classroom and in air training.
Whenever possible, performance reviews should include a sampling of comments made by students during instructor evaluations. A copy of the performance review will be retained on the instructors file, and copies of the student comments contained in the instructor evaluations should be attached as proof of reference.
Instructor performance reviews should include professional and personal goals for the instructor, based on the principle of continued professional development.
At least once a year, each instructor will have annual performance review. In preparation for the writing of the review, the Chief Flying Instructor or the Associate Chief Flying Instructor will review the accumulated instructor evaluations from the previous 12 months that cover both classroom and error instruction. This review will look for any above average or below average indications by students, and these findings should be reflected in the writing of the review.
Instructor performance will be scored on the basis of a five-point scale, using the following assessments:
Not acceptable. Remedial Action Required as described in comments.
Below expectation. Some Improvement Required as indicated in comments.
Performance meets expectations.
Performance exceeds expectations; demonstration of leadership qualities commentate with experience
Exemplary performance and leadership qualities.
The review will address three areas of focus: flight training operations, interpersonal skill, and safety. There will also be summarizing comments at the end, which include suggested goals for professional development.
The performance review will be dated and signed by the Chief Flying Instructor or Associate Chief Flying Instructor, and provided to the Instructor.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted of Annual Performance Reviews conducted in the preceding 12 months (QAE-33) to ensure they are completed in accordance with this policy. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Student Feedback Policy
Langley Flying School provides students with multiple opportunities to provide feedback concerning the quality of flight training and student services. This is done through survey documents that are administered to students on a regular basis, as well as website access points, where students can provide direct feedback for suggested improvements to Langley Flying School aircraft, facilities, and administration/organization. Student feedback is used to improve flight training and student services.
On a continual basis, feedback access points are maintain for students on the webpage, providing access to instructor evaluations, aircraft improvements, facilities improvements, service/organization improvements, and Program Review. Student inputs with respect to suggested improvements are continually monitored by the Chief Flying Instructor, and a Langley Flying School Record of Corrective Actions (RCA) is generated each time a suggestion is made so as to provide a means of documenting, evaluating, and tracking the implementation of the improvement. Additionally, instructor evaluations and program reviews are monitored on a continuing basis by the Chief Flying Instructor; when an unsatisfactory response is provided by a student, an RCA will also be generated, again for the purpose of documenting, evaluating, and tracking the unsatisfactory response. An important part of the RCA process is to determine whether or not the unsatisfactory response is isolated, or reflexts a trend; in the case of the latter, corrective actions will be followed through. In the event that the unsatisfactory response is isolated, no further action is typically taken.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted of Student Feedback processes (EQAv-55) to ensure they remain effective and that RCAs are begin properly administered. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Instructor Feedback Policy
Langley Flying School provides Instructors with opportunity to provide feedback concerning the quality and effectiveness of teaching environment. This is done through survey documents that are administered to Instructors annually, as well as website access points where Instructors can provide direct feedback for suggested improvements to Langley Flying School aircraft, facilities, and administration/organization. Instructor feedback is used to improve the quality and effectiveness flight training services.
On a continual basis, Instructor feedback access points are maintain for Instructors on the website whereby Instructors can make suggested improvements. These improvement inputs are continually monitored by the Chief Flying Instructor, and a Langley Flying School Record of Corrective Actions (RCA) is generated each time a suggestion is made so as to provide a means of documenting, evaluating, and tracking the implementation of the improvement. Instructor Surveys, which are also accessible on the website, are is continually monitored by the Chief Flying Instructor. If an unsatisfactory response is submitted on any survey item, an RCA is generated. The RCA serves the purpose of documenting, evaluating, and tracking the unsatisfactory response. An important part of the RCA process is to determine whether or not the unsatisfactory response is isolated, or reflects a trend; in the case of the latter, corrective actions will be followed through. In the event that the unsatisfactory response is isolated, no further action is typically taken.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted of the Insructor Feeback process (QAE-65) to ensure it remain effective and that RCAs are begin properly administered. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Student Withdrawal Policy
If a student decides to withdraw from a program, he/she must provide a dated, written, notice of withdrawal to the Chief Flying Instructor. Refunds are calculated according to Langley Flying School’s Refund Policy, and the date on which the written notice of withdrawal is received will be used to determine any refund owing.
An international student whose application for a study permit has been denied is entitled to a refund under PCTIA Bylaw 38.3, if a copy of the denial letter is provided to Langley Flying School prior to the program start date.
In the event of student withdrawal, notification can be made in any written form, including email. The Chief Flying Instructor will acknowledge receipt of the notice within three working days and subsequently make a written assessessment of the refund calculation to be retained on the student file. The refund, including a written rationale, will be provided to the student within 14 days of receipt of notification.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted of Student Withdrawal Policy processes (QAE-110) to ensure they remain effective and that the SWP is begin properly administered. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Safety in flight training operations is paramount to Langley Flying School’s policy on student conduct and dismissal. The following are grounds for the student suspension or dismissal:
- violation of the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
- violation of Langley Flying School’s Flight Rules and Safety Precautions;
- mistreatment of Langley Flying School aircraft and equipment;
- any other action, operation, procedure, behavior, or conduct by a student which, in the view of the Chief Flying Instructor, compromises safety in flight training operations.
Suspension and Dismissal Procedures
In the event of suspension or dismissal, written notice will be provided to the student by the Chief Flying Instructor. In the event that a physical letter is not viable, a PDF copy of the letter may be sent as an attachment to an email sent to the student's last know email address as recorded in the students record. The letter will outline the events or incidents giving rise to the School's action, and the letter will also advise the student of their right to appeal the decision in accordance with Langley Flying School’s Dispute Resolution and Refund policies. In the event of suspension, the letter will specify the date and time the student is required to report to the Chief Flying Instructor for a resolution meeting. If the Chief Flying Instructor deems the outcome of the resolution meeting to be unsuccessful, or if the student fails to attend the resolution meeting as required, dismissal action will be taken in accordance with the provisions of this policy.
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-8) to ensure that incidents in the preceding year where student suspension or dismissal action was taken was administered in conformity with the Suspension or Dismissal Policy. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Private Pilot and Commercial Pilot Programs
Unless self-study practices are in effect, students are expected to attend all Private Pilot and Commercial Pilot groundschool classes, tutorial sessions, and/or scheduled training flights. Except for medical or personal reasons, failure to attend all classes, tutorial sessions, and/or scheduled training flights may result in dismissal from the program of study.
Multi-engine Class Rating Program
Groundschool attendance is not required for the Multi-engine Class Rating.
Instrument Rating Program
Groundschool attendance is not required for the Instrument Rating Programs. When student demand is sufficient for Instrument Rating grounschool, students meet collectively and a tuition fee paid, but a record of attendance is not required nor recorded.
Instructor Rating Program
Groundschool attendance is required for Instructor Rating Program, but because the ground sessions are one-on-one where most commonly the student teaches the Instructor. Attendance records are maintain using a diary format by both student and instructor; these records must include meeting date, meeting time, and the subject taught and practiced; the record is compiled by the instructor student and verified by the Instructor as the completion of training is approached.
In the case of Private Pilot and Commercial Pilot groundschool classes, attendance is recorded at the beginning of classroom by the Groundschool Instructor and data retained in the school groundschool records. In the case of self-study practices, students are required to maintain a record of their study time, including date, hours spent engaged in studying, and the groundschool section studied during that time. Student performance with respect to self-study effectiveness is monitored by way of student performance on sectional quizzes, which must be completed under supervision at the school facilities.
International Students in Canada: Compliance
Langley Flying School Inc. - CONDITIONS (imposed on study permit by Canadian immigration officers)
Full time students are required to fly 10 hours per month or attend a PPL - CPL Ground School session.
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-6) to ensure the information regarding attendance is properly recorded and maintain. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Prior Learning Assessment Policy
A prior learning assessment is conducted whenever a student transfers to Langley Flying School from another flight training unit, including students from foreign countries.
Prior Learning Assessments are conducted by the Flight Instructor in consultation with Chief Flying Instructor. Assessments will seek to balance Transport Canada training requirements and standards for flight and written testing, on the one hand, with minimizing student expense.
The Flight Instructor assigned a student needing a Prior Learning Assessment will compile copies of the student’s prior training, including all groundschool and flight training records. When possible, prior training records will be scanned and saved on the students file. The Flight Instructor will then meet with Chief Flying Instructor to develop a strategy to smoothly transition the student into Langley Flying School programs. A brief summary of the this transition plan will be recorded on the QAE 22 Prior Learning Assessment Report, linked on the school's staff page, and a copy of this assessment will summarized in a memo to file and placed on student's electronic file.
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-8) to ensure that any Prior Learning Assessments conducted in the preceding year have been properly administered in accordance with this policy. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Language Proficiency Assessment Policy
As per international standards, pilots must demonstrate English proficiency with regards to listening comprehension, speaking ability, and effective response to described scenarios. In accordance with Advisory Circular (AC) No. 401-009, the quality of English spoken by student is the responsibility of the CFI to ensure that all student pilots that have not demonstrated an operational or expert level of language proficiency by means of a formal language proficiency demonstration do so prior to engaging in radio communications.
Langley Flying School conformance with AC 401-009 begins with conversational assessments by Flight Instructors during the first few training flights. Student who, in the view of Flight Instructors demonstrate "sub-standard" English skills will be immediately restricted from operating the radio during training flights. Fight instructors will then notify the CFI via email
In an effort to provide early evaluation to ESL students, Langley Flying School administers its own evaluation of English proficiency for ELS students in cases where Flight Instructors feel English proficiency may compromise effective learning and safe flight operations.
Flight Instructors should target to complete an assessment of student English proficiency prior to the start of the fifth flight lesson. Formal testing for English proficiency must be conducted in those cases where, in the view of the Flight Instructor, a student’s language skills may be contributing to ineffective learning and ineffective aircraft radio communication.
The testing will be conducted by the student’s Flight Instructor, using questions and student reference material contained in the Langley Flying School English Proficiency Test (LFSEPT) and accessible on the website. The LFSSEPT contains ten question related to photographs or images. The photographs and images are accessible to student through a student link, while the test questions are accessible to the Flight Instructor through a separate staff link.
The Flight Instructor must deliver the questions in a sterile fashion such that the student answer will not be affected by the subjective or interpretive comments. Specifically, the question must be read clearly a maximum of three times; the response of the student must be evaluated and scored after the third reading. The student response must be rated as “understood,” “marginally understood,” or “not understood.” “Marginally understood” means that the student is able to answer the question correctly, but the use of spoken words contained in the student’s response contain significant errors pertaining the meaning and organization of words. Student will be assessed as “passed” when all responses indicate the student “understood” the questions, or in a maximum of three questions the responses indicate the student “marginally understood” the question.
In the case of “failed” assessment, the student may repeat the LFSELPT, but the test must be delivered by the Chief Flying Instructor.
In the case of a second “fail” assessment by the Chief Flying Instructor, the student will be advised in writing that flight training must be discontinued, and shall only be resumed when the student provides evidence of additional English language proficiency training and the student passes a third LFSELPT test administered in the presence of the Chief Flying Instructor.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted of Language Proficiency Assessment Policy processes (QAE-44) to ensure they remain effective and that LFSELPT is properly administered. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Langley Flying School policy regarding disputes is that individuals should first attempt to resolve any issues informally between the parties involved. Grade appeals should first be first brought to the attention of the Instructor who issued the grade. If attempts at informal resolution are unsuccessful, or if an individual is uncomfortable with informal procedures, Langley Flying School provides and fair and reasonable mechanism for formal dispute resolution and grade appeal. The resolution of dispute shall reflect that safety is paramount in flight training operations, and that all students at Langley Flying School are entitled to fair and equitable treatment.
Dispute Resolution and Grade Appeal Procedure
The procedures for dispute resolution and grade appeal are outline as follows:
- If possible, a disputant shall attempt to resolve a dispute or grade appeal informally.
- If informal resolution is unsuccessful, or in cases where the disputant or grade appeal is uncomfortable with informal measures, the disputant shall submit the complaint or grade appeal in writing to Chief Flying Instructor. The Chief Flying Instruction will request written submissions from all parties involved, including witnesses if required. Within 72 hours from the time that the original written complaint was submitted, the Chief Flying Instructor will meet with parties involved for the purpose of adjudication, and within 24 hours of this meeting, the Chief Flying Instructor will provide a written decision to the disputants or grade appellant.
- In the case of grade appeals, the decision of the Chief Flying Instructor is final. In the case of disputes, if either party is dissatisfied with the decision of the Chief Flying Instructor, the dispute may be referred to a mediator. Within 48 hours of receiving a written request for mediation, the Chief Flying Instructor shall appoint a Canadian Airline Captain or a Civil Aviation Inspector as mediator. The costs of mediation will be shared equally by Langley Flying School and the disputant.
At a minimum of once a year, an audit is conducted (QAE-20) to ensure that any cases of Dispute Resolution or grade Appeal conducted in the preceding year have been properly administered in accordance with this policy. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Langley Flying School collects staff and students’ personal information for the following purposes:
- Compliance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations;
- Compliance with the policies and procedures of Transport Canada regarding personnel licensing;
- Compliance with PCTIA.
- Conventional accounting practices and procedures;
- Compliance with the policies and procedures of the Canada Revenue Agency, including the issues.
It is prohibited for Langley Flying School staff to release any private information related to students other than for the purposes stated above. We do not disclose personal information to other private or public bodies or individuals except at your request or as required by law.
Procedure for maintaining Student Files
Student personal and training information is collected throughout the student’s attendance at the institution. All required information regarding the student performance, progress, and acquired pilot qualification, is scanned and placed on electronic student located on a secure server. Documents from which scans are made are shredded.
Pilot qualification documents may include name, birthdate, address, telephone, and email data. Langley Flying School’s pilot training records additionally include next-of-kin contact information.
Access to the student files located on the server is limited to the appropriate administrative staff, the Chief Flying Instructor, the Chief Groundschool Instructor, and line Flight and Ground Instructors.
As students progress through pilot training, copies of Langley Flying School pilot training records are periodically forwarded to Transport Canada and Industry Canada for the purposes of processing pilot qualification documents. Personal and training information for all students remain in the secured filed system for periods of up to seven years, after which the information may be destroyed using a secure destruction method.
Personal Identification Documents
Copies of student personal identification documents are required for the processing of pilot qualification documents, are photocopied, certified, and physically stored separately in a secure safe located at the school. Copies of these documents are then periodically transferred to Transport Canada via surface mail.
At the end of the seven year period, the full student file may be destroyed using a secure destruction method.
Procedure for Student Access to Information
Active students wishing to access information in the student file should make this request with their Flight Instructor. In all other instances, access requests must be made in writing to the Chief Flying Instructor.
Release of Information
The school will not release information to any person or organization other unless authorized in writing by the student unless required, or unless required to so by Canadian law, a subpoena, court order or if the release of information is necessary as part of an ongoing police investigation.
Persons authorized to access information on behalf of a student must provide written proof of this authorization.
Photographs and Promotions
Langley Flying School uses use photographic images of students, combined with names and dates, on the school’s website and social media to promote students achievements and success.
Storage of Personal Data in the United States
Langley Flying School’s secured file system is backed up in the United States, Langley Flying School utilizes Google Drive and Docs as a means of storing and analyzing student, staff and school performance and quality assurance, and Langley Flying School utilizes social media such as Facebook and Twitter. Since these practices imply the storage of personal data in the United States and other countries, restricted access to this information, in accordance with Canadian privacy laws, cannot be assured.
Student consent is provided for in the Student Enrolment Contracts, advising student that by enrolling in programs, and by signing the Enrolment Contracts, students are consenting to the above practices pertaining to your personal information, data, and images. If students choose not to consent to these practices, they are advised to contact the Chief Flying Instructor in writing so that alternate arrangements can be made.
Flight training and workplace safety is the primary focus of Langley Flying School's activities, policies, and procedures, and these are the responsibility of the Chief Flying Instructor (CFI). Flight Training Operations Safety (FTOS) pertains to the safety of flight training operations, and includes all safety issues related to ramp operations (excluding aircraft de-icing procedures), taxiway operations, runway operations and air operations. FTOS includes flight training education, and standard operations and procedures pertaining to flight training. Workplace Safety (WS) pertains the use of offices and classrooms, and includes aircraft deicing. While Langley Flying School is committed to providing a safe working environment for its employees, the practices of its WS are extended to Langley Flying School students, as well as employees.
Where staffing levels permit, the CFI may delegate the responsibility for FTOS to a Safety Management Officer (SMO) and responsibility for WS to a Workplace Safety Officer (SMO). These positions may be combined to delegate jointly to one individual.
At a minimum of once a year, an evaluation is conducted (QAE-15) to ensure that any Langley Flying School's Safety Policy relevant and effective. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
With respect to both FTOS and WS, the CFI is responsible for the investigation and analysis of incidents which are unsafe, or in which safety is compromised. Incident investigation must include an effective root analysis, and must provide a Corrective Action Plan that uses rules or improved operating procedures to prevent re-occurrence if possible. The Corrective Action Plan must include short-term and long-term action plans. The results of the incident report will be communicated to students and staff. Incident reports will be documented in the Langley Flying School Record of Corrective Actions.
At a minimum of once a year, an evaluation is conducted (QAE-15) to ensure that any Langley Flying School's Safety Policy relevant and effective; a finding of non-relevance or ineffectiveness will be documented in a Langley Flying School Record of Corrective Action.
Anonymous Safety Reporting
With respect to both FTOS and WS, CFI is responsible to promote and maintain a no-fault safety reporting system, clearly identified as anonymous, whereby safety incidents or threats can be reported with impunity. This reporting system will be openly accessible through the Langley Flying School website, and will be regularly tested on a monthly basis for proper functioning.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QAE-15) to ensure Langley Flying School is testing the Anonymous Safety Reporting system on a monthly basis. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Flight Training Operations Safety
Flight Operations Safety Threats List
The CFI will maintain a Flight Operations Safety Threats List (FOSTL) which, drawing on the input of Flight Instructors and students, identifies hazards in Langley Flying School flight training operations. The FOSTL must include a clear measure of severity of the hazard and Remedial Measures that utilize rules or operating procedures to reduce or eliminate the risks of occurrence. The FOSTL will be kept current and relevant to operations and will be reviewed annually for this purpose.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is promoting and maintaining a Flight Operations Safety Threats List. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Mid-air Collision Risk
As mid-air collision risk is considered a high risk for flight operations safety, the CFI is responsible to promote and maintain a Near Mid-air Collision reporting system, whereby near mid-air collisions can be documented. This reporting system will be openly accessible through the Langley Flying School website, and will be regularly tested on a monthly basis for proper functioning.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is promoting and maintaining Near Mid-air Collision reporting system, as well as testing the system once per month. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Workplace Safety Threats List
The CFI will maintain a Workplace Safety Threats List (WPSTL) which, drawing on the input of Flight Instructors and students, identifies hazards in Langley Flying School workplace. The WPSTL must include a clear measure of severity of the hazard and Remedial Measures that utilize rules or operating procedures to reduce or eliminate the risks of occurrence. The WPSTL will be kept current and relevant to operations and will be reviewed annually for this purpose.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is promoting and maintaining a Workplace Safety Threats List. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
In response to fire safety, the CFI will conduct initial and annual recurrent training on the use of fire suppression equipment located in the school, and complete a Staff Safety Training Report.
The CFI will additionally conduct monthly inspections of Langley Flying School facilities to ensure the following standards are maintained with respect to fire safety:
- There is adequate fire suppression equipment (excluding aircraft equipment).
- The fire suppression equipment is in good operating order, including removal from harness and green pressure status where required.
- The fire suppression equipment has been inspected by a qualified inspector within the preceding 12 months.
- Smoke detectors are tested using an approved testing technique.
- Emergency exit signs are properly illuminated in darkness.
- Emergency exit instructions route maps in each classroom at the campus with the exit from that room specifically noted in a coloured highlight.
- Emergency lighting batteries expiry dates are not exceeded.
- The Langley Flying School published emergency procedures for a fire evacuation (Workplace Emergency: Evacuation) remains in accordance with best practices, and is effectively posted in the school for the purpose of education and promotion.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is conducting initial and annual recurrent training on the use of fire suppression equipment located in the school, and is additionally conducting the specified monthly testing related to fire safety. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
In response to aircraft deicing, the CFI will, prior to the start of the aircraft icing season (November 1st through April 1st), ensure:
- All staff members using Isopropyl Alcohol (rubbing alcohol) have initial and recurrent training on the safe use of this produce for the purpose of deicing, including product storage and handling protocols.
- Ensure the Hazmat Safety Card for Isopropyl Alcohol is current and up-to-date.
- The school protocols for aircraft deicing, as published in the Standard Operating Procedures, are in accordance with best practices for workplace safety.
- The school supply of Isopropyl Alcohol is stored in a safe and secure location in accordance with recommended best practices.
On a monthly basis throughout the year:
- In conjunction with the monthly fire safety inspection, inspect and ensure the continued safe storage of Isopropyl Alcohol
- On a monthly basis, and in conjunction with fire safety reporting, send an email report to the Chief Flying Instructor regarding the results of the above storage inspection, and make recommendations for safety.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is conduct initial and annual recurrent training on de-icing procedures for school aircraft, and is additionally conducting the specified monthly inspections related to Isopropyl storage. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
In response to earthquake safety, the CFI will conduct initial and annual recurrent training on earthquake safety and complete a Staff Safety Training Report.
The CFI will additionally conduct monthly inspections of Langley Flying School facilities to ensure the following standards are maintained with respect to earthquake safety:
- Shelving is securely fastened to walls.
- Large or heavy objects on placed on lower shelves.
- Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china are in low, closed cabinets with latches.
- Heavy items such as bookshelves, pictures and mirrors securely fastened to walls and away from desks, couches and anywhere people sit.
- Overhead light fixtures and top heavy objects are properly braced.
- Surplus quantities of Isopropyl Alcohol are stored in a secure and vented location, away from oxidizing agents—household bleach and hydrogen peroxide.
- The Langley Flying School published emergency procedures for an earthquake (Workplace Emergency: Earthquake) remains in accordance with best practices, and is effectively posted in the school for the purpose of education and promotion.
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is conduct initial and annual recurrent training on the use of fire suppression equipment located in the school, and is additionally conducting the specified monthly inspections related to earthquake safety. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
Ramp Surface Ice
Ramp surface icing can occur in the winter months which clear icing forms on the ramp surface as a result of freezing mist or rain. The condition is difficult to detect and is extremely hazardous with regard to fall injuries. The safety strategy is to post warning signs to alert staff and students when ramp icing is detected, and to disperse sand in critical areas where the fall risk is high. In response to the safety risks associated with ramp surface icing, the CFI will conduct initial and annual recurrent training on earthquake safety and complete a Staff Safety Training Report.
The CFI will additionally conduct monthly inspections of Langley Flying School facilities during the winter months (November through March, inclusive) to ensure warning signs and sand are readily available to staff
At a minimum of once per year, an audit is conducted (QA-16) to ensure Langley Flying School is conduct initial and annual recurrent training on procedure to minimize the fall risk associated with ramp icing. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
The following links are gateways to these safety provisions and compose Langley Flying School's Safety Policy:
Langley Flying School maintains an anonymous safety reporting system to encourage the open and free exchanges of information related to system in ground and flight operations. This sytem is linked on the main web page, or by clicking on the following: Anonymous Safety Reporting.
The Responsible Executive (David Parry) for Langley Flying School provides guarantee that the anonymity of persons making a report through this system is technically assured.
The personal information of all staff and students must remain confidential, and this protection of privacy is the responsibility of all Flight Instructors and staff members.
No information related to staff or students shall be released to any person or organization, including other students, without the consent of the staff member or students.
Telephone numbers shall never be released.
Staff meetings are normally to be conducted on a bi-weekly (every second Monday). Because safety issues are often discussed at staff meetings, attendance is mandatory for all Flight Instructors, and failure to attend may result in a suspension of flight training privileges.
The staff meeting minutes are accessible through the following link: Staff Meeting Minutes
It is the Flight Instructor's responsibility to ensure all administrative work with respect to student invoicing is completed at the termination of training flights, including the updating of student accounts.
Credit billing on student accounts without payment is prohibited.
One-on-one Groundschool instruction with a Flight Instructor is billed to students at a rate of $50 per hour. Preparatory Ground Instruction associated is also billed out at a rate of $50 per hour, but students are automatically assessed .2 hour for Preparatory Ground Instruction for each dual flight—this format for billing is designed to ensure fairness in billing. Students inquiring about one-on-one instruction in addition to groundschool classes and dual flight instruction should be encourage to contact individuals posted on the Langley Flying School's Tutor's List.
Any student who does not show for a booking, or cancels with less than 24 hours notice will automatically be charged a No Show/Late Cancellation fee. The current fee is $123.00. The fee will be posted to the students’ account as an amount due.
No-show fees may also be assessed for students who are in excess of 60 minutes late for a booking.
Cancellations due to weather do not qualify for this fee, and as such any booking that cannot fly due to weather conditions currently at or forecast to be below the minimums stated in the School’s Standard Operating Procedures will NOT be charged a fee.
Cancellations due to student illness will not be charged this fee either. However, if a sick student does not call to cancel their flight, a No Show fee may be charged - good judgment and common sense should be used in this situation.
A copy of the No Show/Late Cancellation fee invoice will be posted in the students file at the School, and can be obtained by contacting any staff member.
The charging of this fee is not at the discretion of the Flight Instructors—the fee will be assessed automatically.
Students who repeatedly abuse the booking sheet with regard to multiple no-shows/late cancellations will have their existing booking(s) cancelled and their booking privileges suspended pending an interview with the CFI or the Assistant CFI to resolve the missed bookings issue.
Instructors will claim 1 hour of dual flight instruction for each fee charged to a student that they had a DUAL flight booked with. It is the responsibility of Flight Instructors claiming a no-show fee to ensure the student account charge has been properly administered, and ensure the student has been notified.
Flight Instructors can only claim a no show fee on their bi-weekly work sheet when an invoice has been completed and processed.
In the interest of public relations, a no-show fee can be cancelled by the Chief Flying Instructor or Associate Chief Flying Instructor.
Limit to Student Deposits on Account
Except when approved by the Chief Flying Instructor, the maximum amount deposited on a student account is $3000 per student.
This application is perhaps the most confusing. The form must contain the qualifying flight date; there is no provision for this on the form, so it must be hand written just above the recommending Instructor’s license number, and clearly identify it as the qualifying flight.
A second problems with this form is that the location of the “total” time for the night rating appears to imply (by its location) that this is total “night” time. This is not the case. In fact this must be a total night and instrument, and the instrument portion of that sum must include the student’s total instrument time to date—it must therefore include instrument time from Private Pilot training. This total should be 20 hours minimum, including the cumulative night and instrument.
All matters related to individual student progress and activity is confidential and must only be discussed privately and discreetly among staff.
Confidentiality exists only when discussion occur in a Flight Instructor office with the door closed.
Pre-flight Briefings and Post-flight De-briefings must be conducted in a Flight Instructor’s office; whenever a Pre-flight Briefing or Post-flight De-briefing entails discussion or comment related to student performance, the door shall be closed.
At no time shall Flight Instructors or staff members discuss matters related to student flight training or performance in the presence of other students.
Flight Instructors must ensure that the record of their licenses, ratings and medical certificates contained in the flight operations information system is accurate and up to date.
Flight Instructors must ensure that their next-of-kin data is accurate and up to date, and that their telephone and residence information on file is current and accurate.
Flight Instructors must immediately advise the Chief Flying Instructor of any changes with respect to their licenses, ratings or medical certificates.
Flight Instructors who exercise flying privileges that have expired are subject to fines and/or suspension.
Class IV instructors shall ensure the Record of Supervision is properly maintained and updated on their personnel files. A copy of the Record of Supervision is available in the Flight Instructor Guide, which is accessible on Transport Canada’s website.
Current Records of Supervision shall be maintained in the Chief Flying Instructor’s Office in a binder entitled “Instructor Records.”
The accuracy of the Record of Supervision is critical for Flight Instructor up-grades, as its content and the content of student training records related to first-solo and flight-test recommendations will be carefully scrutinized by Transport Canada when an application for Class III status is submitted.
Safety in flight training operations depends on accuracy of information contained in student Pilot Training Records.
It is the responsibility of Flight Instructor to ensure that all information contained in the Pilot Training Record is up to date and accurately reflects progress of training.
The timeliness of PTR entries following training flights is central to safe flight training operations.
Entries in the PTR should be completed at the termination of individual training flights, but in all instances must be completed within 48 hours of the termination of the training flight, without the explicit approval of the Chief Flying Instructor.
The content of Flight Instructor comments is central to safe and qualitative flight training operations.
Flight Instructors must provide sufficient written summary of the student's progress to enable continuity of training by any Flight Instructor; in the case of solo training flights, the student must be asked to make a similar written summary.
While PTR comments serve the function of communication between Flight Instructors, the PTR comments must also be designed for student consumption. For this reason, PTR comments from the preceding flight should be reviewed with a student in a Pre-flight Briefing.
The information reported in the comment section of the PTR should have three parts:
- General description;
- Areas for improvement (maximum of three);
- Plan of action for next flight.
The general description should describe the overall achievements of the flight; individual exercises should not be described unless necessary, as they are already listed in the PTR entry. If Preparatory Ground Instruction is provided, this should be noted.
Students begin training without any knowledge of what documentation is required in their personal log book.
It is the responsibility of a Flight Instructor conducting a dual training flight or supervising a student solo flight to ensure that flight times and exercises are properly recorded in students, Pilot Log Books
Instructors shall ensure that student Pilot Log Books contain correct times that match the time entries contained in the Pilot Training Record, including the allocation of times to specialized columns, and that all exercises completed during the training flight are noted, using the numeric code for exercises prescribed by Transport Canada. The numeric codes shall be preceded with the notation “Ex.”—for example "Ex. 16, 17, 18, 23 . .”
Speciality landings and instrument training shall be recorded with descriptive text—“Ex. 16 (short, obstacle), 17, 18 (short, obstacle)”, in the case of speciality landings, for example, “Ex. 16, 17, 18, 13, 24 (full panel, unusual att.),” for example, in the case of instrument training.
All groundschool Instructors, including tutorial Instructors, shall ensure that an accurate record of class attendance and a description of the subject of the class is submitted to the Chief Groundschool Instructor within 24 hours of the completion of the class.
As soon as possible after the commencement of training, student must provide proof of citizenship. Instructors must be presented with the original, and the Instructor will make two copies of this to be placed on the student file.
- a citizenship certificate;
- a Certificate of Registration of Birth Abroad issued by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration;
- a birth certificate or baptismal certificate issued in Canada or in a state whose citizens do not require a passport to travel in Canada. A copy certified by the issuing state or duly notarized is acceptable;
- a passport. If no expiry date is indicated on the passport, an attestation that the passport is valid is required from the applicant’s state of citizenship;
- an aviation personnel license showing the citizenship of the holder and issued by the state of which the applicant is a citizen; and
- a Canadian Immigration Record and Visa, Form IMM1000, issued to a landed immigrant by the Department of Citizenship and Immigration.
Flight Instructor shall ensure that a copy of student Medical Certificates is placed on file prior to student readiness for solo flight.
To ensure there is no interruption in training, students shall be provided with the name and telephone number of the Medical Examiner, and properly briefed on the type of medical examination required, as well as the probable delay in processing (as much as three weeks).
In the event of a temporary outage of Pilotlog, the dispatch of training flights will transition to the use of manual entries and authorizations using the Langley Flying School Flight Operations Log. The flight numbers will begin as #1 and subsequent flights will numbered accordingly. Caution must be used to ensure the Flight Operations Log retain continuity and the log pages must be numbered accordingly. The Flight Operations Log entries for the time of the Pilotlog outage must be retained until they have been transcribed in Pilotlog. Flight Instructors are responsible to ensure their flight notes are preserved and that all data pertaining to their flights during the period of outage are transcribed in Pilotlog.
When using the manual Flight Operations Log, Instructors must require their students to do manual calculations of takeoff gross weight and center of gravity calculation. A landing center of gravity is not required. The weight and balance envelope, as depicted in the appropriate POH should be referred to.
Organization and preparation for Langley Flying School Groundschool is the responsibility of the Chief Groundschool Instructor.
There are two full-time and three part-time groundschool semesters per year. The full-time semesters begin the second week of January, and the first week of June. The part time semesters begin the first Tuesday in February (Spring), the first Tuesday in June (Summer), and the first Tuesday in September (Fall) each beginning on the first Tuesday of the month.
The full-time and part-time semesters cycle through the Private Pilot, Commercial Pilot, Instrument Rating, and Multi-engine Rating Programs. This cycle is completed in approximately 8-months; the part-time cycle requires just over a year.
The specific course dates are described in the Langley Flying School Calendar.
Full time classes are conducted Monday through Friday from 9am to 12 noon with an hourly 10-minute break. The part-time classes are conducted on Tuesday and Thursday evening from 7pm until 9:15 pm, with a 10 minute break at 8pm.
Maximum Classroom Student to Instructor Ratio
The maximum Student to Instructor ratio for the classroom is 16 to 1.
Each class should begin with a set of posted “early-bird” questions as an ice-breaker; this should be followed with a review of the material covered last class, and an outline of material to be covered in the current class. The class should finish with a summary of what has been covered, and reading assignments for the next class.
Groundschool Records shall be maintained and secured in the office of the Chief Groundschool Instructor, in binders.
Student scores on groundschool written quizzes or examinations are confidential. It is prohibited for a Groundschool Instructor to leave scored examination/quizzes in a place when the results are openly accessible by students.
The standard for tutorials is that they are student directed or driven—that is to say, the subject matter should be determined by the students, based on what subjects they would like to address. After student-raised subjects have been addressed, the tutorials should focus on practical navigation, which is generally regarded as a subject that requires more long-term learning.
When tutorial instruction is provided by persons other than a qualified Flight Instructor, the instructor must be a qualified Commercial Pilot, or a Commercial Pilot Student who has successfully completed the Transport Canada Commercial Pilot Written Examination.
Tutorial Instructors must be recommended by the Chief Groundschool Instructor and must have written authorization from the Chief Flying Instructor.
Tutorial Instructors not qualified as Flight Instructors are referred to as Teaching Assistants.
All tutorial instruction shall be recorded on the Tutorial Instruction Checksheet. This record shall be kept in the current Groundschool File located in the Chief Groundschool Instructor’s office.
Langley Flying School maintains a Tutor's List of qualified students who provide informal one-on-one tutoring to students. The Tutor's List is published on the website, along with contact information.
The following specifies the administration of student written examinations:
Material for Study Preparation
Qualifications derived from Examination Completion
Shortly after beginning flight training.
Piper Cherokee Pilot Operating Handbook (Fire during start), Pilot Checklist (engine starting), general procedures for training flight preparation.
Solo engine start-up.
Upon completion of the first five air exercises.
Langley Flying School’s Flight Training Handbook and Transport Canada’s Flight Training Manual related to the first five exercises; general procedures for flight to and from airport.
Prior to First Solo Flight.
Student Pilot Permit.
Prior to First Solo Flight.
Radio License Study Guide in Langley Flying School’s Flight Training Handbook; see also specified study questions.
Radio Operator’s License
Prior to First Solo Flight.
Piper Cherokee or Cessna 150/152 Pilot Operating Handbook related to all emergency procedures; general flying procedures in the circuit. The Pilot Operating Handbooks are linked in the Ready Room.
Instructor Authorization for first solo flight.
Prior to first solo flight to the Practice Area.
Vancouver VTA Chart; general procedures for departing and arriving at Langley Airport.
Instructor Authorization for solo flight to the Practice Area.
Airport Qualification Examinations (AQEs)
Prior to First Solo Flight to specific Airports.
General procedures for departing and arriving at the specified airport, including circuit procedures and airport layout—Canada Flight Supplement.
Instructor Authorization for solo flight to the specified airport.
Commercial Pilot Students prior to first or second training flight.
Commencement of Commercial Pilot training.
Commercial Pilot Students prior to third training flight.
Commencement of Commercial Pilot training.
Commercial Pilot and Night Rating Students prior to first solo night flight.
Night flying references contained in the Flight Training Handbook as well as listed in the Ready Room.
Instructor Authorization for solo night flight.
Commercial Pilot Students prior to Mountain Flying training.
Mountain flying procedures and precautions contained in the Flight Training Handbook as well as listed in the Ready Room.
Commencement of Mountain Flying training.
Prior to the Flight Test
Flight Test Recommendation.
The Flight Instructor or staff member supervising a written examination is responsible to ensure the proper completion of the answer sheet.
Only qualified Flight Instructor is authorized to administer, supervise, and correct a PSTAR examination.
All information outlined on the answer sheet must be completed in full, including start and stop times, student signature, invigilator signature, and instructor signature and certification if required.
All completed answer sheets, regardless of whether a student passes on not, must be placed on the student file.
All examinations must be corrected to 100%, and a Flight Instructor must sign the answer sheet indicating the completion of this task. To correct an examination to 100%, each erred response of the student must be reviewed for the purpose of obtaining student comprehension of the subject addressed by the question. The completion of this task, and the “corrected to 100%” signature indicates that a student has demonstrated satisfactory comprehension of all subjects addressed by examination question.
PART 2 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE CONTROL
Maintenance Control Manual (Copy)
This manual constitutes the manual required by Canadian Aviation Regulation (CAR) 406.38. It reflects the means by which Langley Flying School, Inc. will comply with the current requirements of the Canadian Aviation Regulations. All incorporated documents identified herein, and every amendment thereto, shall meet the requirements established in this manual. The policies and procedures outlined in this manual, and in all incorporated documents identified herein, must be strictly adhered to at all times.
Each incorporated document, manual or list shall contain the following certification signed and dated by the person responsible for it within the organisation: “This document meets all requirements established in Langley Flying School’s Maintenance Control Manual as per the requirements of CAR 406.38(2).”
List of Effective Pages
Introduction to this Manual
This Maintenance Control Manual, hereafter referred to as the “Manual,” establishes the procedures, terms and conditions of the aircraft maintenance system of Langley Flying School, Inc. The Manual, approved by Transport Canada, defines the duties and responsibilities of individuals participating in that system, and it has been compiled for the use of persons operating or maintaining Langley Flying School aircraft. It contains details of the procedures to be followed to ensure compliance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations, hereafter referred to as “CARs,” and the related standards. The procedures detailed in this manual apply to all personnel performing maintenance, elementary work or servicing involving Langley Flying School, Inc. aircraft and must be adhered to at all times. Failure to comply with the terms of this manual may result in suspension of the operating certificate, aircraft certificates of airworthiness, or both.
In case of conflict between this manual and the requirements of the CARs, the CARs will prevail. The amendment status of this manual may be determined by reference to the list of effective pages.
No aircraft shall be released for flight unless it has been maintained and certified in accordance with this manual. Where maintenance agreements are in effect, the operator remains responsible for the work done.
Economic considerations shall not take precedence over safety in the inspection and maintenance functions and shall not be factored into any joint or separate decisions made by personnel of the Langley Flying School, Inc. or the Approved Maintenance Organisations (AMOs).
Amendments and deviations must be authorised by Transport Canada.
When reference is made to the Company and/or Operator in this manual, it shall be taken to mean:
LANGLEY FLYING SCHOOL, INC.
The Maintenance Manager is responsible for all maintenance performed on the Company aircraft. Flight Instructors providing or supervising flight training, as well as pilots using Company aircraft for non-training flights, are responsible to ensure that take-offs are conducted in aircraft that are in compliance with the terms and conditions of this manual.
Safety in operations is paramount and any Instructor or Pilot-in-command is fully authorised to terminate or suspend any operation when, in the opinion of the Instructor or Pilot-in-command, the safety of the operation with respect to maintenance or airworthiness is in question.
1. Maintenance Control Manual Administration
1.1. Distribution of This Manual
This manual will be made available to each person who performs or manages maintenance, elementary work or servicing of the Company's aircraft.
The distribution of this manual with respect to personnel and aircraft is controlled by serial number and is recorded on an Incorporated by Reference document and is maintained by the Maintenance Manager.
The proper distribution of this manual is the responsibility of the Maintenance Manager.
1.2. Amendments to Maintenance Control Manual
The Maintenance Manager conducts amendments to this manual when there are changes in the maintenance control system, when the Minister directs changes, when there are changes in CARs, or when there are changes within the Company such as personnel changes or the addition of aircraft operated.
Any amendment must be incorporated in all manuals within 30 days of the date at which Transport Canada approves the amendments.
For the purpose of tracking the amendment process the Maintenance Manager will keep a list indicating the return of the Amendment Control Pages as described in Section 1.2.1. This list and the returned copies of the Amendment Control Pages will be retained by the Maintenance Manager for a period of 6 years.
1.2.1. Amendment Procedure
Amendments will be conducted by the Maintenance Manager in accordance with the following:
In the bottom left-hand corner of each page of this Manual must appear the Revision Number and the Revision Date of the page. The validity of the page is determined by comparing the Revision Number and the Revision Date of the page with the Revision Number and the Revision Date that appears on the List of Effective Pages.
When a section of this manual is amended, a vertical line in the left margin will indicate the amendment.
Any amendment requires that a new List of Effective Pages be completed and placed in each manual copy.
Where an amendment requires additional pages, these pages shall bear the page number of the preceding page in the manual and be suffixed alphabetically.
Each amendment must be accompanied by an Amendment Control Page, which appears in Section 1.2.2 of this manual.
To initiate an amendment the Maintenance Manager will prepare and forward to Transport Canada two copies of the proposed amended page or pages, a revised List of Effective Pages, and an Amendment Control Page.
After approval by Transport Canada, the Maintenance Manager will, within 30 days, ensure that all distributed copies of this manual as listed in Section 1.1 have been amended.
After incorporating an amendment, each manual holder will sign the Amendment Control Page confirming that the amendment has been incorporated and holder’s manual and a photocopy of the signed Amendment Control Page shall be returned to the Maintenance Manager for his or her records.
1.2.2. Amendment Control Page
2. Air Carrier Description
LANGLEY FLYING SCHOOL, INC. is a privately owned Company providing fixed-wing flight training services to the public. Normally, flight-training operations are routinely conducted within the lower Fraser Valley and southern coastal area of British Columbia. Cross-country flight training is conducted elsewhere in accordance with demand for services.
Maintenance is performed by agreement with AMOs, which meet the maintenance and quality standards of Transport Canada. Scheduled inspections are conducted in the approved facilities. Elementary Work and Servicing may be conducted on the ramp. Alternate AMOs holding Company Aircraft Ratings may be used in the event the aircraft requires repair when away from main base, provided this repair is undertaken in accordance with Section 4.2.2 of this Manual.
Flight training operations are based at Langley Airport in facilities located in Hangar 4B. Facilities included three offices, three briefing rooms, two classrooms and a hangar (indicated right). When not in use, Company aircraft are either secured to tie-down adjacent to the Hangar 4B or stored in the hangar.
The list of aircraft operated by the Company is recorded on an Incorporated by Reference document and is maintained by the Maintenance Manager
3.1. Organisation Chart
The relationship between positions within the Company that relates to the maintenance control system is as follows:
3.2. Persons Responsible for Maintenance Control System
The duties and responsibilities will be as defined in the following sections. All personnel involved in the maintenance control system are required to become familiar with their designated responsibilities respecting this manual.
In accordance with Subsection 706.04(1) of the CARs, the President shall ensure that the Maintenance Manager is provided with a sufficient number of personnel to ensure the control of all required maintenance.
3.2.2 Maintenance Manager
The Maintenance Manager is responsible to the President for the control of all required maintenance. This responsibility and control includes, but is not limited, to the following:
- Developing this manual and aircraft maintenance schedules.
- Maintaining this manual, aircraft maintenance schedules and records of certification and traceability for aeronautical products and material.
- Scheduling maintenance, elementary work and servicing according to approved maintenance schedules.
- Controlling maintenance records.
- Proper delegation of responsibility for service difficulty reporting to the AMOs.
- Ensuring technical publications are amended.
- Ensuring work conducted by the Companies AMOs, personnel training, aircraft dispatch and control of defects are in accordance with this manual.
- Ensuring airworthiness directives are complied with.
- Ensuring that aircraft are in conformity with their type design.
- The operation and success of the Quality Assurance Program described in this manual.
- The proper administration of Quality Assurance Findings in accordance with CAR 406.36(1),
- lncluding the planning and administration of corrective action related to Quality Assurance Findings described in Section 7 of this Manual.
- Managing the training and authorisations for the performance of elementary work and servicing on Company aircraft.
- Liaising with AMOs and regulatory agencies.
- Monitoring aircraft inspections, repair, overhaul, alteration, defect rectification and certification of work.
- Conduct periodic Weight and Balance and Equipment List data audits in accordance with Section 6.2 of this Manual
- Identify items for service difficulty reporting.
- Maintaining up-to-date all documents Incorporated by Reference.
In the event of temporary absence of the Maintenance Manager, the President may assign another person within the Company’s senior management to act as Maintenance manager provided the appointment is not more than 30 days, and the assignment is made in writing. Assignments of Acting Maintenance Manager for periods longer than 30 days require Transport Canada approval.
3.2.3 Flight Instructors
Flight Instructors are responsible to the President to ensure the flights they authorized in accordance with CAR 405.32 (Authorization of Training Flights) are conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Manual. This responsibility and control includes, but is not limited to the following:
- Elementary work and servicing is conducted in accordance with the initial and ongoing training they receive, and performed and recorded in accordance with Section 4.4 of this Manual.
- Aircraft defects are reported and managed in accordance with Section 4.3 of this Manual.
- Technical dispatch of aircraft is conducted in accordance with Section 5.2 of this Manual.
- All aircraft used for Company operations have prior flight authority in accordance with Section 6.3 of this Manual.
3.3. Personnel Qualifications, Authorisations and Records
3.3.1 Maintenance Manager Qualifications
The Maintenance Manager shall meet the requirements of CAR 406.36 and the Standards of Competence set out in CAR 426.36.
The Maintenance Manager shall meet the human factors training requirements of CAR 406.45 and Airworthiness Notice B058.
3.3.2. List of Authorized Persons
The Maintenance Manager will maintain a list of persons authorised to perform or supervise the performance of elementary work and servicing, which shall include the details of task authorised and a description of training undertaken by each person.
3.3.3. Acknowledgement of Aircraft Authorization
Aircraft authorisations provided to persons pursuant to this section will be indicated by the Maintenance Manager’s signature in staff Initial Training Records, and will be acknowledged by the authorized person by initialling the training record authorization next to the Maintenance Manager’s signature.
3.3.4. Transcripts and Training Records
Each Person authorised to perform elementary work and servicing will receive a transcript of his or her training upon completion of the training.
Training records and authorisations shall be retained for at least six years.
The Maintenance Manager shall ensure that all persons performing or supervising the performance of elementary work tasks and aircraft servicing receive initial, update, and additional training as specified in Sections 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 of this manual.
Initial and update training shall include a human factors component in accordance with the requirements of CAR 406.45, and will consist of instruction in a classroom setting on the following subjects:
- human performance;
- factors influencing human error including
- viii.norms (commonly accepted standards and procedures);
- xi.distraction; and
- error management (which includes error prevention and error containment).
From time to time, additional training may be required in response to findings related to non-conformance or ineffectiveness as defined under Section 7.2.3 (Quality Assurance Findings) of this Manual. In such cases, the record of related training will be attached to the appropriate Quality Assurance Corrective Action Forms referred to in Section 7.3 of this Manual.
Maintenance related safety documentation will be made available to employees and communicated verbally as topics of discussion.
3.4.1. Initial Training
With respect to the Maintenance Control System, authorised persons shall receive initial training with respect to the content and requirements of this manual and the applicable sections of the CARs.
With respect to aircraft servicing procedures for the aircraft operated by the Company, authorised persons shall also receive initial training on refuelling, oiling, de-icing, pre-flight inspection and aircraft ground handling, and this training must be provided by an AME.
Trained persons must perform each elementary work task under the direct supervision of an AME, before being authorised to perform the task unsupervised.
Determination of whether or not a person is trained will be with reference to the list of authorised persons, along with their transcript of training.
The Company will keep a record of all initial training conducted pursuant to Section 3.4.1, a copy of which appears as in an Incorporated by Reference document.
3.4.2. Update and Additional Training
In addition to initial training, update and additional training shall be carried out on an annual cycle and the following table lists the minimum training which shall be completed within each twelve-month period by persons authorised to perform servicing or elementary work:
Canadian Aviation Regulations
Each Aircraft Type
The Company will keep a record of all update and additional training conducted pursuant to this Section 3.4.2, a copy of which appears as in an Incorporated by Reference document.
4. Maintenance Policies
The maintenance policies of the Company are described in this section.
4.1. Approved Maintenance Schedules
All aircraft operated by this Company will be maintained in accordance with the Maintenance Schedules approved by Transport Canada in accordance with Parts 605 and 625 of the CARs.
The Approved Maintenance Schedules developed by this Company will contain maintenance and inspection requirements for the Company’s airframes, engines, propellers, appliances, survival equipment, emergency equipment and other equipment installed on the aircraft, including all applicable out of phase equipment requirements. Approved Maintenance Schedules will take into account the requirements of any modification incorporated in the above items.
The Maintenance Manager will update and review the Aircraft Status Display daily, as per Section 5.1 of this Manual, for the purpose of scheduling maintenance and the Maintenance Manager will review completed Approved Maintenance Schedules at the completion of a maintenance event to insure their proper use.
4.1.1. Identification of Approved Maintenance Schedules
The Approved Maintenance Schedules in use for Company aircraft constitute documents that are separate from this Manual. The Maintenance Manager will ensure, that a copy of the current Approved Maintenance Schedule for each aircraft type operated by the Company is attached to each of the copies of this Manual distributed in accordance with Section 1.1.
The Approved Maintenance Schedules are identified as an Incorporated by Reference document, and may be found in the back of the same binder that holds the Company Maintenance Control Manual.
4.1.2. Evaluation and Amendments to the Approved Maintenance Schedules
The Maintenance Manager will meet at least once per every 12-month period with the AMO to evaluate the effectiveness of the Approved Maintenance Schedules and amend as required to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. A record of this communication will be maintained by the Maintenance Manager.
As the Approved Maintenance Schedules used by the Company constitute a separate document, amendments to the Approved Maintenance Schedule will be undertaken separately.
The Maintenance Manager, in consultation with the AMOs, will prepare proposed amendments to an exiting Approved Maintenance Schedule and submit them to Transport Canada for approval.
The proposed amendment to the Approved Maintenance Schedule will be tracked as using a Quality Assurance Corrective Action Forms.
Once the final version of the replacement Maintenance Schedule is approved, the Maintenance Manager will immediately remove all superseded Maintenance Schedules from circulation and distribute the replacement Maintenance Schedules in accordance with Section 4.1.1 above.
4.2. Approved Maintenance Schedule Tolerances
All tolerances applicable to maintenance tasks are identified in the Approved Maintenance Schedule for each aircraft type, and shall be authorized and controlled as per the requirements of this section. This section reflects the requirements of CAS 625.86(8).
4.2.2. Requirement for a Maintenance Release
When the invocation of tolerance requires an inspection or other work by the AMO, a maintenance release is required (CAS 625.86[8,c]).
4.2.3. Airworthiness Directives and Airworthiness Limitation
Tolerances are not permitted for maintenance tasks that are specified by an airworthiness limitation or airworthiness directive (CAS 625.86[8,d]). If, for example, a repetitive 100-hour airworthiness directive (AD) inspection coincides with a 100-hour scheduled inspection check, the repetitive AD inspection must be accomplished and documented in the Journey Log prior to invoking a tolerance on the subsequent 100-hour scheduled inspection check. Tolerances, therefore, do not apply to tasks required by ADs.
4.2.4. Independent Tracking of Scheduled Check Tasks
Each check cycle set out in an Approved Maintenance Schedule must be tracked independently such that a 500-hour inspection is not the 5th 100-hour inspection, but instead is due 500 hours from the last 500-hour inspection (CAS 625.86[8,d, ii]). Adherence to the Company policy regarding the calculation of the next inspection time following the invocation of a tolerance will ensure conformity with this requirement.
4.2.5. Calculation of Next-inspection Time
The Company policy regarding the calculation of the next inspection time is as specified by (CAS 625.86[8,d, iii]): “Each scheduled interval of a task is calculated form the time the task was last carried out, regardless if a tolerance is applied. For example, where the first interval of a 100 hour check is carried out at 110 hours, the next inspection is due at 210 hours.”
4.2.6. Procedures for Invoking Tolerance for Component Tasks (e.g, Engine Overhaul)
CAS 625.86 (8, d, v) reads as follows: “Prior to the commencement of a tolerance to a component task interval, maintenance action may be required to confirm continued serviceability of the component. For example, before using a tolerance to an engine TBO, filter checks or power runs may be appropriate.”
It is the responsibility of the Maintenance Manager to determine when maintenance action for the purpose of determining the continued serviceability (AMO assessment) is required prior to invoking the tolerance for a component task. At all times, if there is doubt regarding a task and the need for maintenance action, the AMO should be consulted.
As a guideline, AMO assessments are not required prior to invoking a tolerance where the continued serviceability can be readily assessable by the pilot—for example, the serviceability of fixed-pitch propellers, tachometers, magnetic compasses, transponders, encoders, altimeters, first aid kits, fire extinguisher, and survival kits.
Conversely, AMO assessments are required prior to invoking a tolerance where continued serviceability cannot be readily assessed by the Pilot—for example, engine serviceability, serviceability of constant speed propellers, and serviceability of ELTs
Where AMO assessment is required, a record of the assessment is required in the Journey Log.
Once the AMO assessment is completed, or in the case of component tasks not requiring an AMO assessment, the tolerance shall be invoked by the Maintenance Manager by way of
- an amendment to the Aircraft Status Display for the purpose of tracking the revised date at which the task is required;
- a clear notation in the Journey Log that states the original date at which the task was required, and the revised date that the task is required; and,
- a clear statement in the Journey Log indicating that an inspection to the degree necessary has been conducted.
4.2.7. Procedures for Invoking Tolerance for Scheduled Maintenance Checks (e.g, non-Component Tasks)
In the case of Scheduled Maintenance Checks, the tolerance shall be invoked by the Maintenance Manager in accordance with the following procedure:
The Maintenance Manager will first examine the appropriate technical records and the Aircraft Status Board and ensure that the proposed tolerance period will not be in conflict with cycle of task completion required by an airworthiness limitation or airworthiness directive.
Where no such conflict exists, the tolerance shall be invoked by the Maintenance Manager by way of
- an amendment to the Aircraft Status Display for the purpose of tracking the revised date at which the Scheduled Maintenance Check is required; and
- a clear notation in the Journey Log that states the original date at which the Scheduled Maintenance Check was required, and the revised date that the task is required; and,
- a clear statement in the Journey Log indicating that an inspection to the degree necessary has been conducted.
4.2.8. Procedures for Invoking Tolerances for Aircraft located away from the Main Base
In the event that an aircraft is caught away from the main base owing to unforeseen circumstances such as the requirement for a diversion due to weather, a tolerance can be invoked with the verbal approval from the Maintenance Manager provided the inspection requirements determined by the Maintenance Manager are undertaken and the circumstances of the verbal approval are entered in the aircraft Journey Log by the Pilot-in-Command.
4.3. Maintenance Arrangements and/or Contracts
This Subsection describes the Company’s Maintenance Arrangements with affiliated AMOs.
4.3.1. Regular Maintenance Arrangements
Maintenance facilities are contracted to AMOs. The AMOs used by the Company are identified in an Incorporated by Reference document.
The maintenance arrangements between the Company and the AMOs are governed by individual contracts, and these are also attached as Incorporated by Reference documents.
The relationship between the Company and AMOs is founded on the expectation that the AMOs, being certified by Transport Canada, have the skill and knowledge to ensure that technical aspects and functions of this maintenance control system will be undertaken to ensure safe and reliable aircraft operations.
It is the explicit policy of the Company that decisions related to aircraft maintenance be made based on the principle that safety is paramount, and at no time will economics or Company expenditure be a factor in the decision-making process.
To remain effective and efficient, communication with the AMOs will be by a Purchase Order System. All work will be requested in writing using a Purchase Order, and a copy of the Purchase Order will be retained by the Maintenance Manager for a period of six years.
All maintenance arrangements will be subject to the Company’s Evaluation Program described in Section 7 of this Manual. (Position of statement changed).
4.3.2. Airworthiness Directive Response Procedures
The Maintenance Manager is responsible to ensure compliance with all applicable Airworthiness Directives (ADs).
When an AD is received by the Company, the Maintenance Manager will retain the original on file and immediately forward a copy to one of the Directors of Maintenance.
For the purposes of tracking and implementing the Company response to the AD in a timely fashion, the Maintenance Manager will post the AD in a conspicuous location in his or her office and such posting will indicate the current status of the Company’s response to the AD.
In consultation with a Director of Maintenance the Maintenance Manager will immediately assess the application and impact of the AD and determine the appropriate response or disposition.
The Maintenance Manager will record a summary of the Director of Maintenance’s interpretation of the AD and respond and document a plan of action in accordance with that interpretation where applicable. A plan of action required by this section will be process and tracked as a Quality Assurance Finding, in accordance with Section 7.3.1 of this Manual.
If a maintenance event is required by the AD, the entries on the Aircraft Status Display concerning the aircraft affected by the AD will be immediately amended to reflect any AD requirements whereby “Air Time at which the next scheduled maintenance task is due” will be amended to reflect the Air Time at which the maintenance event required by the AD is noted, and the “type of scheduled maintenance next due” is replaced with the notation “AD Compliance”. With respect to the Company policy in administering ADs and maintaining the Aircraft Status Display, see also Section 5.1 of this Manual.
4.3.3. Unforeseen Maintenance Arrangements
Unforeseen maintenance denotes any unpredicted event in which immediate maintenance of a Company aircraft is required and the AMOs are unable to perform the maintenance required owing to location of the aircraft. In the event of unforeseen maintenance being required, the Maintenance Manger will ensure that all unforeseen maintenance is conducted by an AMO holding the appropriate rating.
4.4. Defect Reporting and Rectification
Section 4.3 describes the policies and procedures related to the reporting and rectification of defects on Company aircraft.
4.4.1. Reporting Defects
All defects of aircraft must be immediately recorded in the affected aircraft’s Journey Log.
In reporting the defect in a Journey Log, the nature and effect of the defect must be sufficiently detailed so as to make any operational personnel reading the entry readily able to interpret the consequences of the defect on aircraft airworthiness.
All defect reports in a Journey Log shall be dated and signed by the person making the entry, and the entry shall include his or her licence number.
In the case of defects discovered during training flights, the person responsible for making a defect report in the Journey Log shall be the Flight Instructor authorizing the training flight.
In the case of defects discovered during non-training flights, the person responsible for the defect report in the Journey Log shall be made by the Pilot-in-command.
All defects shall be dealt with in accordance with this Section immediately upon discovering the defect, or immediately after a flight during which the defect was discovered.
The Maintenance Manager will ensure that all student pilots are advised that defects must be immediately reported to a supervising Instructor.
Flight Instructors will notify the Maintenance Manager of all reported defects.
4.4.2. Removing Aircraft from Service
Effectively and safely removing an aircraft from service is the responsibility of the person making the defect report in the Journey Log.
When an aircraft is “removed from service” the person responsible shall immediately complete the following procedure:
- make a descriptive entry in the Journey Log related to the defect with the additional statement “Aircraft removed from service;”
- physically remove the aircraft Journey Log and keys from operational circulation by placing the keys inside the Journey Log, and then placing the Journey Log on center of the Maintenance Manager’s desk;
- on the Aircraft Status Display, select the aircraft “Temporarily out of service” status.
- on the Flight Operations Board, write “Removed from Service”;
- communicate to the Maintenance Manager in writing (e-mail, note on desk, or note on white board in in the Maintenance Manager’s office) that the aircraft has been removed form status.
4.4.3. Deferring Defects
For the purpose of tracking deferred defect, the Company shall maintain a Deferred Defects List for each aircraft, which shall be affixed to the aircraft Journey Log; a copy of the Deferred Defects List appears as a Incorporated by Reference document.
All defects shall result in an aircraft being removed from service, and the defect being rectified by an appropriately rated AMO before returning to service, except as provided in this section.
Where permitted by CAR 605.10, aircraft having outstanding defects may be operated subject to the provisions of this Section.
4.4.4. Deferral of Defects by Flight Instructors
Where permitted by CAR 605.10, Flight Instructors may defer a defect for up to 5 days and therefore affect continued operation of an aircraft during this period provided they follow the Defect Deferral Procedures specified by Section 4.4.6, and all of the following conditions exist:
- the safety of continued operation of the aircraft is not in doubt;
- the defect does not constitute a hazard to any other aircraft system or to any person on board owing the defective equipment not being isolated or secured;
- the defect does not entail buckling, cracks, or extensive corrosion to the skin or structure of the aircraft;
- the defect does not pertain to any of the following incidents:
- abnormally hard landings, nose-wheel landings, or landings involving tail strikes or excessive side-loading on the landing gear;
- bird strikes or possible bird strikes;
- collision or possible collision with any object during ground or flight operation;
- flap deployment in excess of the limit speeds specified for the aircraft;
- airspeed in excess of the maximum structural cruise speed;
- the exceeding of any other aircraft limitation prescribed by the Pilot Operating Handbook.
- the defect is not related to the pilot’s movement of control surfaces or engine controls;
- the defect is not related power plant (engine) or equipment related to the power plant, including abnormal engine gauge indications;
- the defect is not related to electrical malfunction (excluding normal light bulb failure);
- the defect does not relate to fuel control, fuel supply, or fuel security;
- the defect does not relate to braking or directional control associated with ground manoeuvring including taxiing, takeoffs and landings;
- the defect is not related to physical security of cockpit equipment or passengers;
- the defect does not relate to emergency equipment, including fire extinguisher, first aid kits, and survival kits;
- the defect is not related to the ability of persons to exit the cabin in the event of an emergency;
- the defect is not related to the turn-coordinator;
- the defect does not violate the minimum equipment specifications of an intended flight as specified by CARs 605.14 (Day VFR), 605.15 (VFR OTT), 605.16 (Night VFR), or 605.18 (IFR)
4.4.5. Deferral of Defects by the Maintenance Manager
The Maintenance Manager may extend the deferral of a defect up to 30 days provided the conditions of Section 4.3.3 exist, or the AMO has been consulted regarding the safety of additional deferral, and a record of this safety consultation is referred to in the Journey Log.
In cases where the evaluation of a defect for deferral status is complex or clearly requires evaluation by AMO staff owing to the nature of the defect, the AMO will provide a written consultation in the Journey Log.
To facilitate the ordering of parts, the Maintenance Manager may further extend a deferred defect for two additional 30-periods provide the additional deferrals are invoked by an entry in the Journey Log and the defect deferral is carried forward in the Deferred Defects List so as to be readily apparent to persons evaluating the deferred defect status of an aircraft.
4.4.6. Deferred Defect Procedure
In the event that a defect is to be deferred as per Sections 4.4.4 or 4.4.5 of this Manual, the following procedure must be accomplished by the person authorized to make the deferral:
- Make an entry in the Journey Log specifying the defect and a clear statement of deferral. The date by which the defect must be rectified, and any restrictions on operational use of the aircraft that may apply during the period of deferral. CAR 605.10 (2) also requires that that the Journey Log entry includes reference to the following:
- where unserviceable equipment is not removed from the aircraft, that it has been isolated or secured so as not to constitute a hazard to any aircraft system or any person on board; and
- that an appropriate placard is installed.
- Make entry in the aircraft’s Deferred Defects List, including the date at which the defect was noted in the Journey Log, and the date by which the defect must be rectified.
- Make a deferred defect entry in the Aircraft Status Display.
- Prepare and post a defect placard to be adhered to the center of the glare shield so as to be immediately visible to the Pilot-in-command; this posting must include reference to any operational restrictions derived from the defect, as well as the date by which the defect must be rectified.
4.4.7. Rectification of Defects
At scheduled maintenance events, AMO staff will review the Deferred Defects List for the purpose of undertaking rectification.
In the case that the defect is rectified during the maintenance event, notation of this rectification will be included in the Maintenance Release following the maintenance event.
In the case of “outstanding defects” (defects appearing on the Deferred Defects List that cannot be immediately rectified) information shall be included in the Maintenance Release describing the reason for non-rectification and the action that have been taken towards completing rectification. The outstanding defects will remain on the current Deferred Defects List located in the back of the aircraft Journey Log.
4.4.8. Recurring Defects
A recurring defect is a defect that is repeated three (3) times on a particular aircraft within a period of fifteen (15) flight segments of a previous repair.
At periods not exceeding 35 days, the Maintenance Manager will examine the Journey Log of Company aircraft to determine if any defects are recurring.
If a recurring defect is identified, the Maintenance Manager will review the recurring defect with the Director or Directors of Maintenance for the AMO participating in the rectification attempts and devise a plan of action to remedy the recurrence; record of this meeting will be maintained on the Maintenance Manager’s AMO file.
4.4.9. Service Difficulty Reporting
Service Difficulty is defined in Airworthiness Manual Chapter 591, and the discovery of a Service Difficulty will be reported in accordance with CARs Part 591.
Service Difficulty reporting is contracted to the AMOs.
The reporting to the AMOs of Service Difficulty encountered during flight operations is the responsibility of the Maintenance Manager.
To ensure the AMOs are properly advised of a Service Difficulty encountered during flight operations, reference to an actual or possible Service Difficulty condition will be explicitly referred to in the purchase order associated with the subsequent request for maintenance work.
4.5. Elementary Work and Servicing
This Section describes the system used by the Company to ensure that Elementary Work and Servicing is conducted in accordance with the CARs.
4.5.1. Elementary Work and Servicing Restrictions
Only those tasks listed in CAS 625, Appendix A will be undertaken as elementary work, only those tasks defined in CAR 101, will be undertaken as servicing.
As per CAR 101, servicing means cleaning, lubricating and the replenishment of fluids not requiring disassembly of the product.
Only persons trained and authorized in accordance with Section 3 of this Manual will perform elementary work.
Only persons trained and authorized in accordance with Section 3 of this Manual will perform or directly supervise the performance of servicing.
4.5.2. Elementary Work and Servicing Standards
In accordance with CAS 571.02(1), the standards used for the performance of elementary work or servicing will be the same as, or equivalent to, those specified in the aircraft manufacturer’s instruction or are recognized industry standards.
4.5.3. Elementary Work and Servicing Control and Recording
Methods, techniques and practices used by the Company in the performance of Elementary Work and Servicing are the same as, or equivalent to, those specified in the aircraft manufacturer’s instruction or are recognized industry standards.
In sampling the aircraft fuel, only fuel sample devices designed for that purpose shall be used.
The use of any tools, equipment, and test apparatus by persons other than AMO staff must be supervised by AMO staff.
Parts and materials used for Elementary Work and Servicing shall meet the requirements of Part 571 of the CARs.
Fuels, oils, lubricants and cleaning materials shall be kept in closed containers, clearly marked with the contents. No fluids shall be dispensed from any unmarked container.
The person performing elementary work is responsible to ensure that a record of the work is made in the appropriate aircraft Journey Log, and that the entry conforms to the requirements of CAS 571.03 to elementary work, summarized as follows:
- product identification (aircraft registration marking, nomenclature, type/model number, name of manufacturer, part number, and serial number), unless the entry is being made in technical record that contains this information;
- a brief description of the work performed;
- where a standard other than the manufacturer’s recommended practice is being used, reference to the standard used in the performance of the work.
Additionally, in accordance with CAR571.03(2), the record of elementary work in the Journey Log must also include accurancy “with respect to any outstanding elements of the work performed, in particular, the need to secure any fastening device that was disturbed to facilitate the work.”
5. Maintenance Planning, Control and Dispatch
This Section describes the Company’s system for maintenance planning, control and dispatch.
5.1. Maintenance Planning and Control
The Company will maintain a centralized record of maintenance status for each aircraft, which will be referred to as the Aircraft Status Display (ASD). The ASD will be maintained in accordance with the provisions of this Section.
For each aircraft in the Company fleet, the ASD will be maintained on a daily basis, and provide display of the following data:
- the current date of the ASD;
- the identification of each aircraft in the Company fleet;
- the flying status of the aircraft, including applicable ADs as per Section 4.2.1 of this Manual and deferred defects;
- the current Air Time of each aircraft at the beginning of each day;
- the Air Time at which the next scheduled maintenance task or any AD-compliance maintenance is due;
- the type of scheduled maintenance next due;
- the Air Time or date for each Company aircraft at which all Out of Phase Items are due derived from the Approved Maintenance Schedules.
The ASD will be displayed manually or electronically on computer terminals conspicuously located in the office facilities of the Company, so that aircraft status can be readily viewed by operations personnel.
The Maintenance Manager will ensure operational personnel are aware of the Company policy that ASD must be examined prior to each flight in accordance with the following:
- prior to any training flight, the ASD must be examined by the Flight Instructor supervising a student solo flight or the Flight Instructor acting as Pilot-in-command;
- in the event of any non-training flight, the ASD must be examined by the Pilot-in-command.
The Maintenance Manager will ensure that all Instructors and student pilots are advised that ASD must be examined prior to each flight and will ensure compliance by means of education and supervision.
The methods and procedures to be used by the Company to insure compliance with ADs are described in Section 4.2.1 of this Manual.
The Company’s policies with respect to ADs, including applicability, compliance, recording and application for an exemption or alternate means of compliance, will be in accordance with Parts 605 and 593 of the CARs.
5.2. Technical Dispatch
The person responsible for system of safe and proper technical dispatch of aircraft is the Maintenance Manager.
Flight Instructors are responsible to Maintenance Manager to ensure that safe and proper technical dispatch of individual flight operations.
Prior to conducting a take-off in a Company aircraft all persons acting as Pilot-in-command will conduct the following:
- examine the ASD to ensure the times and dates of required maintenance events are not exceeded, or will not be exceeded during the course of the anticipated flight;
- examine the aircraft Journey Log and Deferred Defects List to ensure defects do not exist that may bring into question the airworthiness of the aircraft during the anticipated flight;
- ensure that the weight and balance during all phases of the anticipated flight is in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook;
- for the purposes of determining airworthiness, conduct a pre-flight inspection of the aircraft in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook and, in the event of the first flight of the day, initial that a daily inspection (DI) was completed in the aircraft Journey Log;
- for the purposes of determining airworthiness, conduct pre-takeoff checks in accordance with the Pilot Operating Handbook and aircraft Checklist.
When a Company aircraft is operated away from its main base (distant operations), all persons acting as Pilot-in-command will, prior to departure from the main base of operations, conduct the review of the ASD as required above, giving due consideration for the period of time distant operations will be conducted.
Flights conducted under Flight Permit authority can only occur if a Flight Permit issued by Transport Canada is carried on board the aircraft. The requirements for Flight Permit authority are described in Sec. 6.3 of this Manual.
5.3. Technical and Regulatory Publications
The following is a list of the technical and regulatory publications that will be maintained to current status:
- Pilot Operating Handbooks for Company aircraft;
- Canadian Aviation Regulations, including the Airworthiness Manual;
- Airworthiness Notices;
- Airworthiness Directives issued for the aircraft, engines, propellers, accessories and equipment types operated by the Company.
The Maintenance Manager will contact the manufacturer of Company aircraft annually to ensure the Pilot Operating Handbooks are maintained as current status. A record of this communication will be maintained on file.
The Maintenance Manager will examine and review the Transport Canada website summarizing amendments to the Canadian Aviation Regulations twice a year to ensure maintenance control system policies and procedures are current with the latest CARs amendment status. This inspection will occur in January and June. A record of this examination will be maintained on file and any applicable amendments will be managed as Quality Assurance Findings.
The Maintenance Manager will ensure the above publications are readily available to persons conducting technical dispatch via internet access or via direct access on aircraft.
The Manufacturers Maintenance and Parts Manuals for the aircraft maintained, including airframe, engine, equipment, and continuing airworthiness publications such as Service Letters and Bulletins are provided by the AMO(s). Langley Flying School contracts with the AMO to ensure these publications are at the latest and current status and this/these contract(s) appear as documents Incorporated by Reference.
6. Aircraft Technical Records and Documents
The Section sets out the Company’s standards with respect to the administration and maintenance for aircraft technical records and documents.
6.1. Aircraft Technical Records
The Maintenance Manager shall be responsible for the safe keeping of all records required to be kept by this document. Records shall be retained for a minimum of six (6) years.
The Maintenance Manager shall be responsible to ensure that Journey Log entries are transcribed to the Technical Logs within 30 days.
Following maintenance, the AMO under contract to perform the maintenance shall make the appropriate Journey Log entries. The Maintenance Manager shall be responsible for the transcription of the AMO’s Journey Log entries into the technical logs.
The Maintenance Manager shall retain copies of all work packages, for all maintenance performed on Company aircraft. For purposes of this requirement, work packages shall include, but shall not be limited to the following:
- Inspection Check Sheets;
- additional work orders or invoices;
- parts lists;
- conformity certificates;
- other maintenance related documents.
6.2. Aircraft Weight and Balance Control
The Maintenance Manager shall ensure that the Weight and Balance Reports and Amendments to the Weight and Balance Reports of Company aircraft shall conform to the Part V—Standard 571 Appendix C (Aircraft Weight and Balance Control) of the CARs.
At intervals not exceeding intervals of 7-months, the Maintenance Manager will conduct an audit of Company aircraft weight and balance data to ensure the Weight and Balance Reports and Amendments, as well as the Equipment Lists and Electrical Load Analysis (ELA), remain current and accurate.
This weight and balance audit shall be based on the requirements of Standard 571 Appendix C. and will consist of a review of maintenance activity during the audit period to ensure all equipment changes were properly documented through weight and balance amendment reports.
The audit will also review maintenance activity for electrical equipment changes that may require ELA documents. In the case of uncertainty regarding ELA documentation, the applicable AMO performing the electrical equipment change will be consulted.
A record of the audit, including specification of the audit period, will be recorded by the Maintenance Manager in applicable aircraft Journey Log.
The Company does not use a fleet weight and balance control system.
6.2.1. Removal or Installation of Passenger Seats
The removal or installation of passenger seats requires that the weight and balance calculations for the flight are amended to reflect this change.
To insure adherence, passenger seats may only be removed or installed with the consent of the Maintenance Manager.
The Maintenance Manager is responsible to ensure that the weight and balance data is amended when the seat configuration is changed for more than the occasional flight.
6.3. Aircraft Flight Authority
In accordance with Section 605.03 of the CARs, no person shall operate a Company aircraft unless a flight authority is in effect with respect to that aircraft and that flight authority is carried on board the aircraft.
As set out in Section 507 (Flight Authority) of the CARs, a flight authority is a valid Certificate of Airworthiness, a Special Certificate of Airworthiness, or a Flight Permit.
In the event that an aircraft operated by the Company no longer conforms to the conditions of issue for its Certificate of Airworthiness, and a flight is required for the purpose of repairs or maintenance, the Maintenance Manager will make application for a Flight Permit in accordance with Part V—Standard 507, Appendix B (Application for a Flight Permit) of the CARs
The Company’s authorization requirements for a flight conducted under the authority of a Flight Permit are described in Section 5.2 of this Manual.
6.4. Location of Records
All technical records related to the maintenance system will be kept in the Company’s main office at Langley Airport.
7. Quality Assurance Program
This Section describes the Company’s quality assurance with respect to the maintenance control system.
7.1. Quality Assurance Program
In accordance with CAR 406.47, Langley Flying School maintains a Quality Assurance Program (QAP), the purpose of which is to ensure its maintenance control system, including Approved Maintenance Schedules, has continued effectiveness and remains in compliance with the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
The QAP centres on the detection and remedy of non-conformance or ineffectiveness within the maintenance control system. The detection component consists of two processes, the first is continued surveillance by the Maintenance Manager, and the second is an annual Quality Assurance Audit (QAA). The remedy component consists of systematic analysis and response to findings of non-conformance and ineffectiveness in accordance with Section 7.3 of this Manual.
7.1.1. Retention of Quality Assurance Program Records
In accordance with CAR 406.47(4), the records derived from the QAP, including the record of findings derived from continued surveillance and the annual QAA, as well as the corrective actions and related follow-up, shall be retained for the greater of two audit cycles or two years.
7.1.2. Control and Responsibility
The QAP is under the sole control of the Maintenance Manager.
The Maintenance Manager is also responsible for all corrective actions (CAs) made in response to unsatisfactory findings identified by the QAP.
7.1.3. Standards for Corrective Actions
This section establishes the standards for the actions and concepts associated with a Quality Assurance Finding (QACAF) and their related Corrective Actions (CA).
A root cause is an initiating cause of a causal chain which leads to an outcome or effect of interest. Commonly, root cause is used to examine in depth the causal chain where an intervention could reasonably be implemented to change performance and prevent an undesirable outcome.
A causal chain is an ordered sequence of events in which any one event in the chain causes the next event.
Short-term Corrective Actions are action taken to immediately remedy the non-conformance identified in a finding, and must be timely, taking due consideration for safety risks associated with the QACAF. Accordingly, short-term corrective action must correct the non-conformance, must change the operation as necessary so as to prevent recurring, and must entail communication to staff regarding the necessary operational changes.
Long-term Corrective Actions must prevent or significantly reduce the odds of non-conformance happening again, and must directly address the outcome of the root cause analysis.
7.2. Quality Assurance Audit
In periods not exceeding twelve months, the Maintenance Manager will co-ordinate the execution of the QAA that will provide an evaluation of all aspects of the systems and practices used for the control of maintenance in Langley Flying School. The audit will produce an unbiased picture of Langley Flying School’s performance to verify that activities and practices comply with the MCM and confirm that the system and procedures, as described in the MCM, remain effective.
The QAA will include an examination and evaluation of the AMOs performing maintenance work for the Company. This evaluation will ensure the AMOs are appropriately rated and maintain these ratings, and that its approvals are still valid. The QAA will also ensure AMOs have the following adequacies: facilities, tools, equipment, and personnel at the location where maintenance is undertaken.
7.2.1. Quality Assurance Audit Procedures
Using the checklist provide in the Quality Assurance Audit Form contained in the Documents Incorporated by Reference, the QAA will systematically examine checklist items to ensure compliance and effectiveness.
7.2.2. Auditor Appointment and Briefing
In accordance with the CAR 406.47(6), the person appointed by the Maintenance Manager to conduct the QAA shall have no responsibility for carrying out the maintenance system management tasks or activities subject to audit evaluation.
The person appointed to conduct the QAA will be briefed by the Maintenance Manager with respect the following:
- the function and operation of the Maintenance Control System;
- the role of the Maintenance Control Manual as the governing contract;
- the role of QAA as measure of success for the Maintenance Control System;
- the role and purpose of the Quality Assurance Audit Form, including the need for determining satisfactory or unsatisfactory findings;
- the need to indicate satisfactory and unsatisfactory findings using the auditor’s initials.
- the role and purpose of the Quality Assurance Finding Form and the Quality Assurance Corrective Action Form.
- the role of Maintenance Manager during and after the audit.
7.3. Non-conformance and Ineffectiveness
7.3.1. Response to Non-conformance or Ineffectiveness (Quality Assurance Findings)
In the event that non-conformance or ineffectiveness is detected, either by the continued surveillance or the annual Quality Assurance Audit, the Maintenance Manager is responsible to ensure that a Quality Assurance Corrective Action Forms (QACAF) is completed. The QACAF is contained the Documents Incorporated by Reference.
The content of the QACAF must provide specific reference to the following:
- the specific section of the Maintenance Control Manual with which the non-conformance or ineffectiveness is related;
- a specific example of the non-conformance or ineffectiveness; and
- a description of the Short-term Corrective Action to immediately correct the non-conformance, including the target date of implementation;
- an analysis of the root cause of the QAF event, including the acceptance of the root-cause analysis by the accountable executive;
- a description of the proposed Long-term Corrective Action to prevent recurrence, including the target date of implementation.;
- a record of a follow-up review that evaluates the Long Term Corrective Action, including an indication of effectiveness of this action;
- where the follow-up review indicates success, acceptance by the accountable executive;
- where the follow-up review indicates non-effectiveness, the initiation of a new QACA form.
As a rule, long-term Corrective Action should be completed within 90 days of the initial date of the QACAF; where additional time is required, the reasons for additional time beyond 90 days should be addressed.
Where the Short-term Corrective Action meets the requirements for Long--term Corrective Action, this must be so stated in the QACAF.
8. Documents Incorporated by Reference
Some activities of the Company which are subject to frequent changes can more effectively be addressed in documents separate from the Maintenance Control Manual.
The documents listed in Section 8.2 are the only documents Incorporated by Reference in this Manual, in accordance with CAR 571.10 (2). Pursuant to CAR 573.03, the certification of this Manual by this Company shall be taken to include that the documents Incorporated by Reference and every change thereto meet the requirements of the policy established in this Manual with respect to those documents.
A copy of all changes to the documents Incorporated by Reference must be forwarded to Transport Canada for incorporation within 30 days of that change being approved by the Company.
8.2. Index of Documents Incorporated by Reference
- Distribution List of the Langley Flying School Maintenance Control Manual;
- Langley Flying School Aircraft List;
- Langley Flying School Organization Chart—Personnel and Organizations;
- Langley Flying School Record of Initial Training;
- Langley Flying School Record of Update and Additional Training;
- Identification of Langley Flying School’s Approved Maintenance Schedules;
- Approved Maintenance Organizations contracted by Langley Flying School;
- Contracts between Langley Flying School and Approved Maintenance Organization;
- Langley Flying School Deferred Defects List;
- Langley Flying School Quality Assurance Audit;
- Quality Assurance Corrective Action Form.
9. General Index
PART 3 FLIGHT TRAINING OPERATIONS
Maintenance procedures for aircraft operated by Langley Flying School are governed by the Langley Flying School, Inc. Maintenance Control Manual, a copy of which is maintained in the School's library and must be carried on board all Company aircraft.
All Flight Instructors must be knowledgeable of the content of the Maintenance Control Manual and the practices and procedures required by this document.
The proper procedures for dispatching an aircraft for flight are described in the Maintenance Control Manual, and the prescribed procedures must be strictly adhered to at all times.
While the Maintenance Manager is responsible for all aspects of the Langley Flying School, including Technical Dispatch, Flight Instructors are responsible to the Maintenance Manager to ensure the provision of proper Technical Dispatch are conformed with (see Section 3.2.3. of the LFS MCM). The provisions of Technical Dispatch described in Section 5.1 and 5.2 must be complied with the Instructor and/or Pilot-in-command.
Generally, the following is a summary of these requirements:
- Ensure maintenance events will not be exceeded during the flight;
- Ensure deferred defects will not affect the airworthiness of the flight;
- Ensure weight and balance limits will not be exceeded during the flight;
- Ensure an effective pre-flight inspection is conducted prior to flight;
- Ensure a proper pre-takeoff checks are completed, including run-up.
Generally, every flight must be preceded by an examination of the maintenance status of the aircraft, which includes an examination of the aircraft’s Journey Log, as well as the data contained in the Aircraft Status Display (ASD—computer data). Ensure that the time in the Journey Log matches the time displayed on the ASD for in-phase maintenance, and ensure the ASD for out-of-phase items does not show any overdue maintenance.
In-phase maintenance refers to scheduled maintenance; in the case of the Piper Cherokee, scheduled maintenance revolves around 100-hour inspections. Langley Flying School also conducts 50-hour oil changes on the Cherokee, but this maintenance event is voluntary, and therefore affords a certain amount of flexibility with respect to scheduling. In the case of the Piper Seneca, in-phase maintenance includes both mandatory 50-hour and 100-hour inspections; every 5th 100-hour inspection includes a specialized 500-hour inspection, and every 10th 100-hour inspection includes a specialized 1000-houir inspection. In all cases, the in-phase maintenance events require strict adherence. While the Maintenance Control Manual provides for an extension based on a 10% tolerance (an additional 10-hour extension in the case of the Cherokee 100-hour inspections), this extension can only come into play with the signature of the Approved Maintenance Organization in the aircraft Journey Log, granting the extension. When the extension is signed off in the Journey Log, and equivalent extension must be manually entered in the ASD by the Instructor.
Out-of-Phase maintenance refers to the required maintenance events that do not fit neatly into the 100-hour cycles, such as compass swinging, pitot-static system checks, engine overhaul, etc.
Deferred Defects records must be examined, to ensure that the proposed flight will not be outside the operational restrictions that a deferred defect may place on the aircraft, and to ensure that a rectification date for an existing deferred defeat is not exceeded.
The proper procedures concerning the use and updating the Aircraft Status Display are described in the Maintenance Control Manual, and the prescribed procedures and use must be strictly adhered to at all times.
Importantly, the ASD must be updated each day to ensure the times in the Journey Log reflect the times in the ASD. Remember, the Journey Log times are the legally governing times that must be transcribed onto the ASD, not the other way around. Any errors in the Journey Log must carried to the ASD; when a audit is conducted in the Journey Log, the corrections derived from the audit will be carried forward to the ASD.
All refueling and adding of oil must be recorded in the Journey Log of the aircraft, and this description must include the type of fluid and the quantity added.
With respect to the adding of oil, the rule of “add at 6 Quarts” exists for all Piper aircraft operated by Langley Flying School aircraft—a litre of oil is only added when engine oil reaches the 6- US Quarts level. In the case of Cessna aircraft, the rule of “add at 5 Quarts”
The storage of oil and other fluids for aircraft is governed by the Maintenance Control Manual. Generally, oil and other fluids for the aircraft can only be left in clearly marked containers. Oil or other fluids from unmarked containers shall never be used.
The return to service (RTS) procedures must be completed whenever an Out-of-phase Task specified in the Pilotlog tracking system is completed by an AMO, or when scheduled in-phase maintenance is accomplished, such as a 100-hour or 500-hour inspection is accomplished. The return to service (RTS) procedures must also be completed when the AMO specifies that a flight test must be conducted, or whenever repair work completed outside the scheduled maintenance is conducted involving an aircraft's flight controls, including aircraft trimming systems, or engine controls, or braking system.
When the RTS procedure is required, the following tasks must be accomplished and documented in accordance with this section, the following RTS checks shall complete and sign the following forrm, and adhere this form in the Journey Log as an entry:
The person conducting the RTS procedures is responsible to ensure the safe and legal return to service of the aircraft, and shall accomplish the following tasks:
In the case of Out-of-phase Tasks, the person conducting the RTS procedure must record that the the Out-of-phase counters have been reset.
In the case of other maintenance tasks, including 100-hour and other in-phase inspections, the following must be accomplished:
- The entry completed by the AMO should be examined carefully to ensure completeness, and special consideration should be given to any requirements by the engineers that a test flight be conducted for the airplane. Also, when maintenance is conducted on the flight control systems, or the engine control systems, a dual inspection is required by the AME staff to ensure there is no mis-rigging; this is indicated by additional statements of airworthiness requiring two signatures by the AME staff, and should alert you to be extra careful in confirming normal functioning. Here is a link for further information on this:
- After the entry by the AMO has been examined, the out-of-phase tasks must be reset on pilot log, and a reset must also be done on the 100-hour counter. Special consideration has to be given to ensure there is proof that the airworthiness directives have been completed during the inspection; these are typically required during 100-hour inspections. This must be done by the Maintenance Manager or the Aircraft Maintenance Supervisor who is experienced; both can perform this using remote computer access.
- Conduct a walk around of the aircraft, and this should be a standard pre-flight walkaround, with special emphasis on inspecting the engine compartment for misplaced tools, or rags, etc., and all the hoses and the wires should be secured as normal. Also, an inspection of all the aircraft lighting features should be checked.
- Conduct a run-up of the engine as per the pre-takeoff checklist, ensuring all checks are normal for type. Advise ground and shut down the engine, ensuring the keys are placed on the glareshield. Carefully inspect the engine compartment for fluid leaks—i.e., fuel and oil.
- After restarting the engine, complete the pre-takeoff checklist and conduct two high-speed taxi runs along the length of the runway. During these runs, perform gentle s-turns to confirm normal directional, and ensure normal braking action. This high-speed taxi test must be conducted separately in each seat position.
- A test flight must be conducted when specified by the AMO, or when there is work on the flight controls, engine controls, or trim systems. Where a test flight is specified by the AMO, the pilot entry in the Journey Log following the test flight must specifically address the test flight items specified by the AMO. Unless otherwise specified, the standard flight test tasks for Langley Flying School aircraft must cover the following: normal aileron operation, normal stabilator/elevator operation, normal rudder operation, normal flap operation, normal trim operation (rudder and stabilator/elevator), normal throttle operations, and normal mixture operations. When possible, these tasks should be completed during downwind leg of a circuit unless traffic considerations require otherwise.
A Langley Flying School aircraft that has received maintenance servicing shall only be returned to service when a Maintenance Release Statement appears in the aircraft’s Journey Log. CAR 571.10 states as follows:
“(2) Except as provided in subsection (4), a maintenance release shall include the following, or a similarly worded statement:
“The described maintenance has been performed in accordance with the applicable airworthiness requirements.”
Flight Instructors who conduct Technical Dispatch of aircraft must verify this statement appears in the Journey Log following a maintenance event, and that failure to do so is contrary to CARs and the provisions of Langley Flying School’s Maintenance Control Manual. If the Maintenance Release Statement does not appear in the Journey Log, Technical Dispatch of the aircraft is not authorized, and the aircraft shall remain out-of-service.
For reference, the following are the colour interpretations for this device:
Caution—ventilate cabin and land as soon as practicable.
Danger—land as soon as possible and evacuate cabin
Hand-propping as an engine-start procedure is prohibited for students or Flight Instructors.
Experience shows that reports of malfunctioning transponders/encoders are generally accurate about 70% of the time—that is, in 3 out of 10 reports, the transponder/encoder is working perfectly well, and it was for other reasons why ATC reported the problem (commonly, the aircraft was temporarily below minimum radar detection attitude, or there was a temporary glitch in the rather complicated radar information distribution system used in the Vancouver Terminal Area). To avoid the inconvenience and down time of a spurious or inaccurate report of transponder/encoder malfunction, a form of “double-check” is to be performed in response to most ATC reports of problems: unserviceable transponder should not be referred to maintenance until it is confirmed as inaccurate with similar reports from ATC during two separate flights and confirmed by two distinct ATC units—e.g., Langley Tower and Vancouver Terminal, or Langley Tower and Victoria Terminal. Lower mainland tower units use the same data, so the confirmed report should be from the terminal controllers.
Langley Flying School uses a100% mixture of Isopropyl Alcohol (commonly referred to as rubbing alcohol, pronounce Isopropyl and also referred to as isopropanol alcohol) to de-ice aircraft. Care must be used at all times when handling isopropyl alcohol as it is highly flammable. It must therefore not be used near any ignition sources or naked flames. A fire extinguisher should also be immediately available.
Isopropyl alcohol is also poisonous, and may be ingested by drinking & breathing fumes (long term skin exposure can also cause defatting). Isopropyl alcohol is oxidized by the liver into acetone. Symptoms of isopropyl alcohol poisoning include flushing, headache, dizziness, CNS depression, nausea, vomiting, anesthesia, and coma. Use in well-ventilated areas and use protective gloves while using. Poisoning can occur from ingestion or inhalation.
Therefore, when handing isopropyl alcohol, vinyl or latex gloves and safety goggles must be worn, and suitable ventilation should be available. Protective clothing should also be worn.
In the event of any medical emergency following exposure to Isopropyl Alcohol, call 911 for an ambulance and the Poison Control Centre @ 1-800-567-8911.
Summary of special precautions:
- Isopropyl Alcohol is extremely flammable.
- Persons apply pressurized de-icing fluid must wear proper eye protection.
- Any flight with contaminated critical surfaces is prohibited. All wing surfaces must be clear of any snow or ice.
- The use of hot water only in de-icing is prohibited.
The following procedures shall be used for the de-icing of the aircraft when required:
- Place aircraft tail into the sun as soon as you arrive at the flight school.
- Remove as much as possible any accumulation of ice or snow from the upper surfaces of the wings and upper tail surfaces with a soft bristle brush.
- DO NOT APPLY ISOPROPYL PREMATURELY in an attempt to quicken the manual removal of ice and snow from the aircraft, as the isopropyl will evaporate, leaving a glazed clear-ice condition.
- Prior to the application of de-icing solution, ensure the aircraft is ready to immediately proceed to the hold-short line, and receive a takeoff clearance-that is, the following has been completed:
- Aircraft has been completely pre-flighted for the flight, the student and instructor have properly completed technical dispatch, and
- The checklist run-up procedures have been completed (the pre-takeoff checks should be completed en route to the hold-short line).
- The de-icing solution should be applied using the pressurized spray bottle which contains 100% Isopropyl Alcohol.
- The use of hot water only in de-icing is prohibited.
- The isopropyl must be applied by a flight instructor who has received de-icing training within the last 12 months (training currency is published on the school website).
- The application of isopropyl by students or untrained staff members is prohibited.
- Where possible, the flight crew should be seated in the aircraft during de-icing to facilitate quick start.
- After the application, the person applying the isopropyl shall ensure that all critical surfaces are free of any ice and snow, and ensure that all moveable flight surfaces have free travel in all applicable directions.
- Prior to conducting a takeoff following the application of isopropyl, the aircraft engine must be check for carburettor icing using the power setting prescribed for the run-up.
- The upper wing surface must be in accordance with the Wing Inspection Requirements procedures, below, to ensure ice-crystals have not formed; if ice-crystals are apparent, the take-off preparation shall be discontinued and the aircraft shall be returned to the ramp for another de-icing application.
- Students are restricted from de-icing unless they have be directed to do so by a Flight Instructor who is providing direct supervision.
Takeoff Procedures in De-iced Aircraft—Requirement for Carb Heat Check
To be effective, the de-icing produce must be applied as close as possible to engine start-up.
As well, delays in post-start cockpit duties should be minimized as much as safely possible.
Because of the delay between aircraft run-up and takeoff, and because carberettor icing conditions at Langley Airport are commonly associated with aircraft icing conditions, the carburettor must be re-checked after the final engine-start (following de-icing) for carburettor icing; this final check for carb ice must be completed using the the power setting prescribed in the run-up checklist and must be completed just prior to contacting the tower.
Wing Inspection Requirements
Prior to contacting the tower to obtain a takeoff clearance, or prior to taxiing onto the runway for takeoff when MF rules are in effect, the pilot-in command shall visually inspect the wing surface for crystallization that would indicate a re-freeze. If re-freeze is apparent, the takeoff shall be discontinued and the de-icing procedure repeated.
Unless approved by the Chief Flying Instructor, a dual instruction flight conducted by a Class IV Instruction shall not commence unless the Instructor has, within the preceding 10 days,
- completed a dual instruction flight, or
- completed a minimum of 3 takeoffs or landings at Langley Airport; or
- has the authorization of the CFI or ACFI to conduct the training flight.
For the purpose of establishing currency, the three takeoffs and landings shall include two touch-and-go landings and one full-stop landing.
Use of the aircraft for the purposes of establishing currency must have prior approval from the CFI or ACFI.
Unless approved by the Chief Flying Instructor, a dual instruction flight conducted by an instructor other than a Class IV Instruction shall not commence unless the Instructor has, within the preceding 30 days,
- completed a dual instruction flight, or
- completed a minimum of 3 takeoffs or landings at Langley Airport; or
- has the authorization of the CFI or ACFI to conduct the training flight.
For the purpose of establishing currency, the three takeoffs and landings shall include two touch-and-go landings and one full-stop landing.
Use of the aircraft for the purposes of establishing currency must have prior approval from the CFI or ACFI.
In accordance with CAS 421.63, all individual training flights conducted by a Class IV Instructor require that the Class IV Instructor obtain specific prior approval from the designated supervising Class I or Class II Instructor, unless otherwise indicated by the supervising Class I or Class II Instructor.
The standards in this section establish a more detailed guidance and requirement for the day to day supervision of Class IV Instructors. Note that this standard is overlapped by additional Class IV supervision requirements specified in the Standard Operating Procedures, including Class IV Instructors Record of Supervision, Class IV Instructor Currency, Enhanced Supervision Class IV Instructors and the Class IV Instructor 10-hour Rule.
All Class IV Instructors subject to Level III Direct Supervision must receive prior approval by a supervising Class I Instructor prior to conducting a dual flight, and prior to authorizing a solo flight. Before requesting authorization, the Class IV Instructor must proviide a brief regarding the student’s recent training history and the lesson planned for the immediate flight; the brief must also include all items of a Pre-flight Briefing as specified in the Flight Instructor Guide.
There are additional requirements related to aircraft maintenance control. All maintenance actions and entries made by Level III Class IV Instructors are authorized only when conducted under the direct supervision of the Aircraft Maintenance Supervisor (AMS), the Maintenance Manager (MM), or a Senior Flight Instructor.
All Class IV Instructors graduating to Level II Direct Supervision acquire a blanket authority for all ab initio training (Private Pilot or Recreational Pilot Permit) with the exception of the following: navigation and cross-country training flights, instrument training flights, and flight test preparation training flights—in the case of these exceptions, the pre-flight brief requirements of Level III Direct Supervision remain in place.
With respect to all other training flights that are not ab initio training flights—e.g., night rating, commercial pilot, VFR OTT, sightseeing flights—the pre-flight brief requirements of Level III Direct Supervision remain in place for dual training flights and solo training flight authorization.
All Class IV Instructors graduating to Level I Direct Supervision acquire a blanket authority for all training flights, excluding flight test preparation and sight-seeing flights—these categories of flying require the pre-flight brief requirements of Level III Direct Supervision.
This procedure establishes the overriding terms and conditions under which a Class IV Instructor may conduct flight training operations. Note especially that this procedure does not supersede or override the mandatory direct supervision of the Class IV Instructor described above.
The name of the “Duty Supervising Instructor” will be posted above the booking computer in reception area, which will indicate to the Class IV Instructors the Class I or Class II Instructor who is on duty for the day and night and who, if not physically present at the school, will be continuously accessible via telephone. If for some reason telephone communications are lost or interrupted, Class IV instructors are not authorized to conduct or supervise training flights.
Second, Class IV Instructors can only conduct or supervise flight training operations when a Class I, II, or III, or a designated Senior Class IV Instructor, is physically present at the school participating and/or actively supervising overall operational safety of the unit. This Supervising or Senior Instructor will be responsible for the monitoring of potential operational safety threats, including weather, aircraft maintenance status and any other procedural, operational, or environmental factors. Class IV Instructors are not authorized to conduct or supervise training flight unless a Class I, II, or III, or designated Senior Class IV Instructor, is physically present at the school.
The Chief Flying Instructor will designate a Senior Class IV Instructor for the purpose of this policy when exceptional circumstances prevail, the designated Class IV Instructor has a minimum of 400 hours flying experience, and the designation is made in writing.
See also the Mandatory 10-hour Rule for Class IV Instructors.
Prior to their first training flight of the day, all instructors must:
- review any staff communication which may have been send by email;
- conduct or supervise the conduct of a weather and NOTAM briefing.
All flight training undertaken by the training unit shall be conducted in accordance with the Flight Instructor Guide, Flight Training Manual, and the Langley Flying School Flight Training Handbook.
Each training flight involving instruction on a newly learned exercise will be preceded by preparatory ground instruction. All training flights, whether they are dual instruction or solo practice, must be preceded by a pre-flight briefing, and must be followed with a post-flight debriefing.
The format and content of preparatory ground instruction, pre-flight briefings and post-flight debriefings shall be in accordance with the Langley Flying School Flight Training Handbook and Flight Instructor Guide.
Except for unusual circumstances, all preparatory ground instruction, pre-flight briefings and post-flight debriefings shall be conducted in private in a briefing room.
Prior to each training flight, the Flight Operations module provided by PilotLog must be fully completed and electronically signed by the student, and verified and electronically authorized by the instructor; authorizations must include attention to the operational weight category relative to the planned exercises.
Prior to each training flight, the details of the proposed flight will be entered on the Flight Operations Board, which provides back-up record of active training flights to be used in the event of a power failure.
In the event that the training flight will not be conducted in the convention practice areas, the exact routing of the flight must be specified on the Flight Operations Board.
A Pre-boarding Check is required by all personnel—students and Flight Instructors—prior to each engine start. Importantly, the Pre-boarding Check does not replace the required Pre-flight Inspection conducted as per your aircraft's Pilot Operating Handbook; instead the Pre-boarding Check is a last minute double check walkabout the aircraft to visually check the following: fuel cap security, fuel sump valve security (no leaks), tires and brakes (normal appearance, no hydraulic leaks), engine cowling latches (secure), and a last inspection for external airframe damage.
The air card planned by Flight Instructors for all training flights must contain a review component where students are enabled to practice exercises introduced on previous flights. Review activity is critical for learning.
Whenever appropriate during the review portion of the training flight, Flight Instructors should seek to introduce a review target for your student to strive for, including descriptive parameters such as speed, angle of bank, altitude, etc. The practice exercise should be devoid of instructor patter whereby the student is enabled to practice, the assigned exercise without instructor input, except where safety warrants.
All review training of this nature must be properly document in the PTR.
Circuit training with passengers in the rear seat is prohibited, accept with the authorization of the Chief Flying Instructor or the Associate Chief Flying Instructor.
See additional information for continuous supervision of private pilot/recreational pilot students.
The 50% Rule is critical for safe operation in the in the landing/overshoot decision-making process at Langley Airport. Landing beyond the 50% distance point at Langley is prohibited.
Simulated forced approach (SFA) training is critical for pilot training and is regarded as the single most important skill passed on to student pilots. Once a student has developed a reasonably effective sense of flair judgment and management, SFA training should be included in every circuit training flight.
The standard for pre-solo release is that a student can effectively manage an engine failure from any position in the circuit. Student must also be effective on placing the aircraft in the paved runway surface, on the grass runway, or in an open field, and the final outcome of the maneuvering must, to be successful, be assessed by the Flight Instructor as “survivable.”
SFAs below 800’ AAE must be initiated only when prior approval has been obtained from the Tower Controller. Otherwise, SFA should be initiated by the Flight Instructor without advanced warning to the student, by closing the throttle and saying “simulated”, or by the phrased “simulated engine fire…simulated engine fire”. Once this is stated and the student begins the response, the Flight Instructor must immediately advise the tower “ABC, simulated forced approach.”
The full phase “simulated forced approach” should be used (not “PFL”) so that all pilots are aware of the exercise.
If tower approval is not immediately provided, the Flight Instructor should abort the exercise by returning the throttle to the previous cruise setting and resuming the normal circuit tracking.
Flight Instructors should only initiate an SFA exercise if they can predict with reasonable certainty that the exercise will be approved.
Extreme caution must be used when conducting night simulated forced approaches onto the runway owing to the fact that obstacles, normally visible during the day, which may not be visible at night. Continuing with a simulated approach onto a runway at night is strictly prohibited below 500’ AAE unless the aircraft is established on the extended runway centreline for final approach.
In an effort to mitigate noise complaints originating from residents who reside under the departure path of Runway 25, the airport management set as the target to begin the noise abatement turn as the last hangar in the line of hangars located north of Runway 25/07. This turn must only be completed “when safe” to do so as high trees in close proximity to the runway reside under the noise abatement track. To facility safe decision-making by training crews, the Three-strike Rule enables crew members to make their decision to continue circuit training based on aircraft performance trends, rather than instances of aircraft performance. The Three-strike Rules states as follows: if for any reason you are unable to meet this turn target owing to wind, weight, or general performance factors within 3 attempts, you must request and obtain approval for the use of Runway 19 for circuits. If the switch to Runway 19 is not authorized, you must take your students to Pitt Meadows for the remainder of the circuit-training session.
There is operational concern with respect to landings on Runway 01 that students may perceive Langley Tower controller requests to exit at Taxiway Echo as mandatory, and that there is a risk that student efforts to do so may compromise landing safety and result in aircraft damage from excessive braking.
Flight Instructors must ensure that students are advised that operational rule that overrides all communication with the Tower controllers is that student pilots should not communicate with Tower controllers—nor attempt to execute a turn to make a runway exit—until the aircraft is brought under safe control. They must be advised that this rule is universal and applies to any runway at any airport.
Requirement for Use:
The use of checklist is mandatory for all specified tasks during flight, with the following exceptions:
- Post-takeoff Checklist (500’ or 1000’ items), provided the checklist tasks are memorized.
- Level/Cruise Checklist, provided the checklist task are memorized.
- Pre-descent Checklist, provided the checklist tasks are memorized.
- Pre-landing checklists where repetitive circuits are being conducted without leaving the circuit.
Procedures for Use:
- It is an acceptable practice for students to perform checklist tasks from memory first, and then confirm completion with a silent review of the relevant items—the silent review, however, must be followed with the statement “(Name) Checklist completed.”
- Emergency checklist items requiring an immediate response must be memorized and completed first from memory—immediately upon completion, and where time permits, the relevant checklist must be completed using an acceptable procedure.
Prior to requesting a Student Pilot Permit, the Flight Instructor responsible for the solo release shall:
- Conduct an audit of the Electronic Pilot Training Record and Instructor Check Sheet to ensure all training and administrative requirements are completed.
- Two copies of the student's birth certificate or other suitable document of identification appear on file;
- The student's Medical Certificate is examined for validity and two photocopies appear on file, and the data contained on the Medical Certificate, including any stated limitations or conditions, is properly entered on the Electronic Pilot Training Record;
- The first solo student competency certification required in accordance with CAR 421.19 (2)(e) appear on the Electronic Pilot Training Record.
- The First Solo Flight Instructor Checklist in the Electronic Pilot Training Record is fully certified;
- The PRESTART, INFLIGHT, PSTAR and PRESOL written examinations are successfully completed.
The student is not deemed deficient pursuant to Langley Flying School's Language Proficiency Assessment Policy.
A Student Pilot Permit must be issued prior to the first solo flight; this may be issued as early as the completion of the technical and administrative requirements of this section.
Prior to a student's initial, second, and third solo flight, the Control Tower, if active, must be advised in advance by the supervising flight instructor; this should be done via VHF radio, advising the tower of the students first name and specifying that the flight is the first, second, or third solo flight.
Chief Flying Instructor Authorization
Students shall not be released for their first solo flight unless the student has completed a check ride with the Chief Flying Instructor, or a Flight Instructor specifically authorized by the Chief Flying Instructor for the check ride. Check rides serve the purpose to confirming with a Flight Instructor peer that the student is ready for solo release.
Forced Landing Performance Requirements
Students shall not be referred for a check ride with the Chief Flying Instructor unless the student has demonstrated competency to conduct an emergency landing from the departure leg (from above 800’ AGL), and the mid-downwind leg position. Competency is demonstrated during these emergency landing if, in the opinion of the Flight Instructor, the student can, in the event of an actual emergency landing, establish the aircraft with a touchdown speed at or below 70 MPH IAS at a selected landing site where the proposed roll-out area is free of fixed obstacles for a distance of 1000’.
The mandatory standard applied to solo release is three consecutive landings without verbal or physical assistance, and at least one of the aircraft main wheels makes contact with the painted centerline marking of the runway. When conducting this procedure and one of the landings does require assistance (verbal or physical), and/or at least one of the aircraft main wheels does not make contact with the painted centerline marking of the runway, the three-count must be restarted.
Two-second Rule for Cessna Aircraft
To minimize the risk of porpoising, student preparing for their first solo flight in Cessna aircraft must consistently demonstrate they are capable of suspending the nose-wheel above the tarmac for a minimum of two-seconds following main-wheel contact with the tarmac.
No matter what Flight Instructors may think or feel about a student’s performance, this “three-count rule” must never be violated. It is critical that a sterile cockpit exist throughout the three landings used for this procedure, including the circuit flying between the landing/takeoff sequence; if there is a need for comment or critique, the three-landing cycle is invalidated and the count must begin again.
When a Flight Instructor feels a student is ready to be released for a solo circuit, they should take control of the aircraft during the final roll-out, and arrange for full-stop and “taxi-around” clearance. During the taxiing for the solo departure, the student must be asked the following:
- Are you tired?
- Do you feel ready for a solo circuit?
Continue with affirmative responses; discontinue with negative or ambivalent responses. As the taxiing continues, brief the student on the reduced-weight performance for the Cherokee during both the departure and approach portion of the circuit, especially the approach portion where there is the likelihood for excess altitude. Reinforce—any doubts, just go around and try it again. You may want to assure them that the tower will look after them and that you can communicate via radio if necessary. As you are taxiing toward the hold-short line, advise the tower unit of the student’s name and that this is their first solo. Prepare the aircraft such that all checks are completed and the student is ready to immediately contact the tower and accept a takeoff clearance. Ensure the student is aware of only doing one circuit. Secure your seatbelt before exiting the aircraft. Monitor the approach of the first solo landing from the run-up area.
Releasing a student at a time less than ½ hour preceding the beginning of twilight is prohibited. There must be sufficient time, worst case scenario, to divert a student to Abbotsford Airport.
The training flights immediately following the first solo flight are referred to as “newly-soloed student flights.” These are check flights preceding a planned solo flight release, which occurs during the training period following students' first solo flight, and lasts until the beginning of the subsequent gates exercise (entry and exit from the control zone).
During this period, each solo release requires a pre-solo flight check rides that shall be conducted by the supervising Flight Instructor to insure continued student safety and competency during these early pilot-in-command period. The requirements for the newly-soloed students' flight checks are as follows:
- The supervising instructor shall ensure the student is competent for the actual and forecasted weather conditions;
- The student has conducted a minimum of three landings demonstrating safety and competence.
During this period, only the Flight Instructor who supervised the original first solo release may conduct and supervise the subsequent check flight that leads to a release for solo flight. Where the Flight Instructor who conducted the original first solo release is unavailable for such a solo release, only the Chief Flying Instructor or a person designated by the Chief Flying Instructor may conduct the check flight. In other words, Flight Instructors are only authorized to conduct a solo release check flight if:
- they are the Flight Instructor who conducted the students first solo release check flight;
- the student has progress to a level of training after where they have completed dual training on the gate exercise; or
- the solo release check flight is authorized by the Chief Flying Instructor of a person designated by the Chief Flying Instructor.
Students can be released for solo flight without a pre-solo flight check provided:
- The student is assessed as safe and competent by the supervising instructor in respect to currency and actual/forecasted weather conditions;
- The student has completed a minimum of three solo flights preceded by pre-solo flight checks and has accumulated not less than three hours solo flight experience in the circuit.
Prior to a student's initial solo flight in the practice area, the Control Tower must be contacted by the supervising Flight Instructor via telephone prior to the student’s departure and briefed on the training status of the student’s flight.
Prior to any private/recreational student solo flight, the instructor providing the written authorization must conduct a review of the student's Pilot Training Record and the Instructor Check Sheet for the purpose of ensuring the solo flight can be conducted safely.
An instructor authorizing a student solo flight is the instructor responsible for supervision.
An instructor supervising a student solo flight is the instructor responsible for the conduct of that flight.
An instructor authorizing any solo flight must conduct a flight review prior to the solo flight if any element of student competency or safety is in doubt.
Prior to all solo flights, the supervising instructor shall insure the student has conducted a weather and NOTAM briefing.
Prior to all solo flights, the supervising instructor shall ensure the aircraft has sufficient fuel for the intended flight, including the required fuel reserve.
Prior to any private/recreational student solo flight, the supervising instructor shall ensure that the planned flight is terminated before the beginning of civil twilight.
Prior to any private/recreational student solo flight involving a cross-country exercise, the supervising instructor shall examine and review the flight planning data prepared by the student to ensure it is clear of any planning errors that may affect the safety of the flight.
The supervising instructor of any private/recreational student solo flight involving a cross-country exercise shall ensure that the ETA for the return to Langley Airport derived from the corrected flight planning data is no later than one hour prior to the beginning of civil twilight.
The supervising instructor of any private/recreational student solo flight involving a cross-country exercise shall include in the Pre-flight Briefing a review of the planned arrival and departure procedures at airports where a touch-and-go or full stop landing is planned.
For the routes authorized for solo cross-country flights, see routes.
“Continuous Supervision” means that the supervising Flight Instructor remains physically present at the Langley Flying School and can receive communication via telephone.
All private/recreational pilot solo flights and all night-rating solo flights will be subject to direct supervision by the flight instructor whereby the instructor is physically present in the LFS office and is able to immediately respond to any emergency that may occur; this supervision may be transferred to another flight instructor, but only after a briefing related to the solo flight has occurred and the newly assigned supervising instructor verbally accepts responsibility for supervising the flight.
The primary instrument of supervision is checkrides. Instructors are responsible to ensure that all checkrides are conducted in accordance with this standard, and failure to refer a student for a checkride as required is regarded as a serious safety risk.
The referral for a checkride must go directly to the CFI. The CFI will then elect to conduct the checkride personally, or he may appoint the ACFI or a Senior Instructor to conduct the checkride on behalf of the CFI.
The students of Class IV Instructor must undergo a checkride with the CFI at intervals not exceeding 10 hours.
The students of Class IV instructors are required to undergo a CFI checkrides after the completion of 10-hour intervals during a student’s circuit training, with the purpose being to evaluate student and Instructor progress.
For scheduling purposes, Class IV Instructors have a 2-hour tolerance such that the checkride interval can be stretched to 12 hours, but this tolerance can only be invoked after consultation with the CFI, and only when it is required for scheduling purposes.
Class IV 10-hour Checkrides may be conducted with the CFI in the rear seat. Class IV 10-hour Checkrides must be conducted by a Class I or II Flight Instructor.
All initial-training students shall undergo mandatory Upper-air and Pre-solo Circuit Checkrides with the CFI prior to being released for their first solo flight. The Upper-air Checkride shall ensure students can safety recover from a full-rotation spin, and a spiral dive; the Pre-solo Checkrides shall ensure the student is safe for solo flight. Where the Instructor for students undergoing Upper-air or Pre-solo Circuit Checkrides is a Class IV Instructor, these checkrides will be conducted by a Class I or Class II Instructor.
All students shall undergo a Simulated Flight Test with the CFI.
Prior to referring a student for a Simulated Flight Test, the recommending instructor must ensure the student's knowledge and skill is sufficient to successfully pass the flight test, including the student's successful demonstration of knowledge of the Flight Test Questions which appear in the Langley Flying School Flight Training Handbook.
Prior to a flight test the recommending Instructor shall audit the Pilot Training Record and/or other training records to ensure that the following tasks have been successfully completed:
- all required training exercises have been successfully completed, and that preparatory ground instruction correctly appears at the initiation of new exercises;
- all of the flight times correctly reflect actual times flown and that the totals are correctly added;
- all signatures are properly entered in the record and that, where necessary, the student has properly countersigned the record.
For night flying requirements, see Flight Plan Requirements for Night Flying.
In the case of all private/recreational pilot solo cross-country flights beyond 25 nautical miles from Langley Airport, the supervising instructor shall insure a Flight Plan is filed with Kamloops FIC.
Langley Flying School Flight Instructors are prohibited from departing on a training flight unless there is a reliable system of flight following in place—that is, the safe return of the flight is monitored and verified by a responsible person or agency.
Langley Flying School’s regular office hours are 9am to 5pm, seven days a week.
If a training flight departs outside regular office hours, or during regular office hours when another Flight Instructor is not present at the School, a Flight Plan must be filed with the Kamloops FIC.
The Flight Plan must indicate “CYA 188 (A)(T)” when the planned flight is in CYA 188 (A)(T). Practice Area and vicinity, must indicate the specific area where training will occur when outside the CYA 188 Practice Area, or must indicate the specific routing where the planned flight is a navigation exercise.
The Flight Plan filed outside regular office hours must be filed by the Flight Instructor to ensure the planning and filing is not conducted incorrectly.
The Flight Plan must specify the contact information specified below.
A Flight Plan is not required outside regular office hours if the departing Flight Instructor has specific verbal commitment from another Langley Flying School Flight Instructor that the latter will be present when the planned flight is concluded, or that equivalent communication will occur via telephone.
Landings and takeoffs on approved grass runways are prohibited when standing water (indicating ground saturation) lies in grass areas adjacent to the Runway 01/19 at Langley Airport.
Soft- and short-field maneuvers are two of the most difficult maneuvers required on the flight test, and results show that students traditionally tend to perform poorly here. More significantly, the maneuvers present significantly high risk for accident or incident—tail strikes, loss of control, low stalls, etc. Accordingly, to mitigate this risk, Private Pilot students should not be introduced to specialty landing and takeoffs until they begin their navigation training. This will ensure they have had sufficient time to solidify their normal landings skills.
Also, for students who have only recently learned to conduct normal takeoffs and landings, the prospect of attempting to learn both specialty types in one lesson is excessive workload. Therefore, ensure that you are teaching soft and short takeoffs and landings as two distinct dual lessons, each to be followed by solo practice. Remember that these dual lessons need not last a full hour—when the student has demonstrated proficiency, they should be released for solo practice; note also that short field movements should be taught first as it is the less demanding of the two.
To ensure all students are fully trained in the use of conventional chart navigation technics in the cockpit, including improvised navigation (diversions), Private Pilot Students and Night Rating Students are prohibited from using handheld moving map devices during training flights, except in the interest of resolving continued position uncertainty where flight safety is in question.
For Commercial Pilot Students, other then those conducting training for Night Rating, and for Instrument Rating Students, the use of handheld moving map devices is unrestricted.
When handheld moving map devices are used, all current maps and publications must be physically assessable to the pilot during flight in case of device failure.
Solo night takeoffs and landings are restricted to the following airports: Langley, Boundary Bay, Abbotsford, Chilliwack and Pitt Meadows.
A Flight Plan must be filed for all night training flights except when a flight itinerary is left with another Instructor and that Instructor remains physically present in the Langley Flying School until the training flight has touchdown at its completion.
Flares must be carried on board all night flights.
Simulated forced approach practice is prohibited below 500’ AGL unless the aircraft conducting the exercise is safely established on final approach course and on a normal glidepath.
When “below glidepath” indications on a VASI or PAPI are evident during any night approach, the Flight Instructor shall intervene verbally and/or physically to establish “on glidepath” indications.
While night spins form an important part of the Commercial Pilot flight training, solo night spins are prohibited.
Late night operations are defined as training operations after 11 pm.
Repetitive Night Circuits are defined as more than one circuit entailing a landing/takeoff or touch-and-go sequence planned for training purpose, conducted after the end of evening twilight.
Repetitive Night Circuits are prohibited after 10 pm, but repetitive circuits are permitted provide advanced notice is provided to the Airport Manager. Information on Airport Manager notificaton requirements are provided for Flight Instructors at the following link: Airport Manager notificaton
Late Night Operations are permited only for the recovery of aircraft (returning to Langley for landing). In order to conduct Late Night Operations, Flight Instructor are required to activate the manual override switch prior to takeoff in accorance with established procedures, and the switch must be turned off immediately after landing.
A risk occurs if multiple flight training units are conducting late night operations whereby the light are inadvertently turned off when a training flight is still being conducted by another training unit. To prevent confusion, a secure note should be posted by the switch stating "LFS is conducting night flying. Do not turn off."
For instructions on Late Night Operations, see the following link: Late Night Operations Procedures
See additional information for Flight Instructors.
If for some reason the lights are turned off upon return to the airport, use a cell phone to contact the CFI and land if necessary at a neighboring airport until the switch can be turned on.
See additional information for continuous supervision of night rating students.
See additional information for the night rating curriculum.
The depiction below outlines the boundary for approved solo Commercial Pilot Student night cross-country routes.
Airports inside the red boundary line may be used in combination, using Campbell River and Agassiz as West and East anchor points respectively. All other solo night cross country flights require prior approval from the CFI and must include an Flight Instructor briefing.
To ensure we don’t get a prop strike on a tie-down rope, the right wing tie-down rope (indicated) must be removed at the first flight of the day. We should keep it with the other ropes currently removed at first flight.
See the Flight Rules and Safety Precautions for additonal tiedown requirements.
Forced approach training within the control zone is prohibited unless authorized by the tower and is to an active runway (i.e. 01, 19, 25, or 07).
Radio navigation is not on the PPL curriculum, and this subject should only be taught at student request. PPL student training must focus on “save-your-life” instrument flying—full panel climbs, descents, and turns, and unusual attitude recovery.
While we, as Flight Instructors, enjoy special privileges to conduct low flight without a prescribed minimum altitude, we can only do so when it can be done safely, without endangering life or property.
Flight Instructors, however, are not immune to prosecution under the provisions of CAR 602.01.
While students must be properly restricted during solo practice with respect to minimum altitudes, it is important for reason of safe and effective training that Instructors enable students to be experienced in low flying—e.g., the bottom end of forced approaches, the precautions associated with low-level diversions.
With respect to forced approaches and precautionary landings, it is considered good practice for Flight Instructors not to descend below 500’ unless we are at least 500’ from any property or person (a distance equal to ¼ the length of the Langley paved runway).
The fuel pump must be turned on in the Piper Cherokee when flying at or below 500' AGL.
High speed low flight presents increased risk for bird strikes.
Except when conducting a simulated forced approach or landing, low flight maneuvering (at or below 500' AGL) must be conducted at or above the base-leg speed for the aircraft flown.
Fuel and oil on board all Langley Flying School aircraft must be sufficient for the intended flight, plus 60 minutes at normal fuel consumption.
Langley Flying School aircraft in the practice area should maintain a listening watch on the frequency indicated in the Vancouver VTA for the purposes of monitoring air traffic. With the intention of reducing the volume of radio traffic, Students and Instructors will only initiate radio transmissions in accordance with the following:
- Regular position-reporting messages shall only be transmitted prior to the conduct of exercises entailing significant changes in vertical altitude—specifically, spins, spirals, forced approaches, and unusual attitudes.
- Only one broadcast should be made preceding the series of repetitious exercises.
- The message referred to above shall include aircraft identification, type, position, altitude, intentions, and the duration of the exercise sequence.
- The Pilot-in-command decision to radio broadcast in the interest of flight safety always overrules this policy.
Instructors should ensure that the volume of the radio is set such that the often confusing communications, as perceived by beginning students, do not interfere with the teaching process in the cockpit. Insulate your students when required.
All initial students (pre-solo and post-solo) require a check flight, consisting of not less than one circuit, prior to a solo release when the winds at Langley Airport are at or above 10 knots.
This requirement is to ensure students are safe and comfortable with any gust factors that may exist when such wind conditions exists.
A separate dual flight entry shall be made in all training records to reflect compliance.
The maximum cross-wind component for conducting takeoffs and landings is 25 knots during dual training and 10 knots during solo training.
Accordingly, a flight shall not be authorized if:
- The winds described in the current CYNJ ATIS are in excess of these values; or
- windsock observations indicate the possibility of winds in excess of these values; or
- the forecast surface winds contained in the TAF published for CYXX for the period in which the flight is to occur are in excess of these values.
Crosswind component limit for pre-solo dual circuit training is 10 KTS.
This requirement is to reduce Instructor exposure to adverse student handling of the aircraft near the ground where the learning benefits are in fact quite marginal. This does not rule out non-circuit training for pre-solo students on windy days, but it establishes that the Instructor shall land the aircraft in such conditions.
In the event that the risk of freezing rain is predicted in the Abbotsford TAF, all solo flying is prohibited, and all dual flights are restricted to within 10 nautical miles of Langley Airport to prevent prolonged flight if icing is encountered.
This section denotes the authorized navigation routes for solo private pilot VFR performing cross-country training.
Note that landings in the listings below are only authorized where indicated (i.e., "full-stop landing").
Also, note that Private Pilot students are only authorized to land at an airport if they have previously performed a landing at the same airport previously with a Flight Instructor.
Furthermore, in order for students to be credited for their long cross-country flight, in accordance with CAS 421.26, they must fly one of the routes filled by Langley Flying School with Transport Canada in accordance with CAR 406.55.
Private Pilot students flying their long cross-country flights may be authorized to fly the course in reverse from their dual flight at the discretion of their Flight Instructors.
All landings on a cross-country flight must entail a full stop landing, and taxiing clear of the runway.
Private Pilot students must flight plan for the specified checkpoints in the route as contained below, with the intent of flying the course as such; credit for the route tracking will be provided in cases where ATC requires modified routes. Students should be sufficiently flexible in their navigation practices so as to successfully respond to impromptu routing instructions provided ATC.
Private Pilot students must prepare their flight planning courses with the intent of remaining clear of U.S. Airspace.
The preferred route for Private Pilot students is Route #1 listed below owing to the variety in airport operations. The next preferred route is Route #2 listed below owing to its longest distance from Langley Airport. The remaining routes provide for alternate training for weather and seasonal considerations
SPECIAL NOTE: Students flying Route #2 must be specifically briefed on the operation in and around CYR 107.
- Langley Airport direct Powell River Airport (full-stop landing); Powell River Airport direct Pitt Meadows Airport (full-stop landing); Pitt Meadows Airport direct Langley Airport.
- Langley Airport direct Sechelt direct Powell River Airport (full-stop Landing); Powell River Airport direct Qualicum Beach Airport (full-stop landing); Qualicum Beach Airport direct Sechelt direct Langley Airport.
- Langley Airport direct White Rock direct Chilliwack Airport (full-stop landing); Chilliwack Airport direct Hope direct Lindell (Cultus NDB) direct Pitt Lake direct Boundary Bay Airport (full-stop landing); Boundary Bay Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
- Langley Airport direct Chilliwack Airport (full-stop landing); Chilliwack Airport direct Boundary Bay Airport direct Hope direct Pitt Meadows Airport (full-stop landing); Pitt Meadows Airport direct Abbotsford Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
- Langley Airport direct Hope Airport (full-stop landing); Hope Airport direct Chilliwack Airport (full-stop landing); Chilliwack Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
- Langley Airport direct White Rock direct Nanaimo Airport (full-stop landing) Nanaimo Airport direct Boundary Bay Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
- Langley Airport direct White Rock direct Boundary Bay Airport direct Chilliwack Airport (full-stop landing); Chilliwack Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
- Langley Airport direct Chilliwack Airport (full-stop landing); Chilliwack Airport direct Pitt Meadows Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
- Langley Airport direct Chilliwack Airport (full-stop landing); Chilliwack Airport direct Boundary Bay Airport direct Langley Airport (full-stop landing).
Flight altitude over the Strait of Georgia is at all times sufficiently high to enable maximum distance glide to land with the aircraft propeller windmilling.
Only students who have completed a dual Georgia Strait crossing are permitted to do so solo, based on a record of satisfactory performance.
At no time will students be authorized to enter U.S. airspace during solo flights, except for the ATC routing from White Rock direct to a position located in the Canadian Gulf Islands.
For dual training flights the practice area in use will be at the discretion of instructor.
Except in an emergency, and unless otherwise specified by the Flight Instructor authorizing the flight, the practice areas for all Private Pilot and Recreational Pilot solo training flights are CYA 188 (A)(T).
In the case of an unscheduled or forced landing, the pilot-in-command (student pilot or instructor) must contact Flight Service and the Chief Flying Instructor.
Following an unscheduled or forced landing, subsequent flight in the subject aircraft is prohibited without the approval of the Chief Flying Instructor.
A takeoff or landing is prohibited in the event that birds are situated on the runway.
Except for night flights a FIC flight plan will be filed for all training flights beyond 25 NM of the airport unless a flight itinerary is filed with another instructor, or the training crew is capable of continuous communication with a ATC.
Completion of spin training for Private Pilot students must be independent recovery from left and right spins from a power-off stall; for Recreational Pilot students, a full spin left and right must be demonstrated and they must recover independently from a left and right incipient spin.
An independent recovery occurs when no verbal or physical prompting is provided by the Instructor.
The minimum altitude requirements for spin training are specified in the Flight Rules and Safety Precautions.
Addtional requirements for spin training are also specified in the Flight Rules and Safety Precautions.
Carrying passengers in the rear seat is prohibited during all utility category training, including unusual attitudes; passengers are additionally prohibited during circuit training except with the prior approval of the Chief Flying Instructor or Associate Chief Flying Instructor.
Prior to conducting flight instruction on a private aircraft, approval must be obtained from the Chief Flying Instructor.
Prior to applying for approval from the Chief Flying Instructor, the student's Flight Instructor shall audit the student's aircraft records to ensure the following conditions are properly documented, photocopied, and placed in the student's file:
- The owner or owners of aircraft used for flight training purposes provide the training unit with evidence that the aircraft is being maintained in accordance with CAR 625.86 (Maintenance Schedules), Appendix B (Maintenance Schedules), Part I (Scheduled Inspection for Small Aircraft other than Balloons) of Part VI of Canadian Aviation Regulations (Standards). In the case of aircraft with a Special Certificate of Airworthiness (Amateur Built), an annual inspection must have been conducted in accordance with Chapter 549.17 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Standards).
- The student must be named on the Certificate of Registration.
- The owner or owners of the aircraft used for flight training must provide written proof that the prospective student pilot and an Instructor are insured for the purpose of flight training;
- All maintenance and servicing must be recorded in the Journey Log in accordance with the CARs.
- All aircraft documents must be properly carried on board in accordance with the CARs, including an up to date and complete Equipment List.
- The aircraft equipment must meet the requirements of the CARs with respect to VFR, Night VFR, VFR OTT, and IFR, appropriate for the level of student training.
- The aircraft must be equipped with a functioning turn co-ordinator or equivalent flight instrument.
- The aircraft must be equipped with an intercom system.
- The aircraft must be equipped with a survival kit, a first-aid kit, and a secured fire extinguisher, and this equipment must have been certified within the last 12 months.
- The aircraft must be equipped with Pilot Checklist for the following phases of flight: pre-takeoff, pre-landing, and all emergency actions prescribed by the aircraft manufacturer.
The student/owner must sign a letter agreement affirming that all maintenance and servicing conducted on the aircraft will be performed by a fully qualified Aircraft Maintenance Engineer during the period of flight training, with the exception of adding oil and fuel, as supervised by the student's Flight Instructor.
The student/owner must enable Langley Flying School's Flight Instructors to access and fly the aircraft free of charge for the purpose of air training and/or practice.
The student/owner must pay an administrative fee of $20 per flight for solo flights supervised by Langley Flying School Flight Instructors.
Class IV instructors shall ensure the Record of Supervision is properly maintained and updated on their personnel file.
All instructors must ensure that the Staff Licenses and Ratings posting is current and accurate; when medical or rating status is changed, Instructors shall amend the Staff Licenses and Ratings posting by hand and ensure that a new copy of the rating or medical certificate is placed on their personnel file.
Instructors must ensure a current record of next-of-kin information is maintained on their personnel files.
Instructors must ensure that all address and telephone information contained in their personnel files is current.
An abnormal occurrence refers to an incident in which the airworthiness of the aircraft may be in question as a result of incident, during either flight or ground operation.
The following are abnormal occurrences:
- Abnormally hard landings.
- Landing with abnormally excessive side-loading on the landing gear (longitudinal axis of the aircraft misaligned with the direction of the aircraft during touchdown).
- Nose-wheel landings.
- Tail strikes.
- Ground collision or possible ground collision, during landing and takeoffs, or during taxiing.
- Exceeding the airspeed limitations of the aircraft.
- Exceeding the RPM limits on the tachometer or propeller.
- Bird strikes or possible bird strikes.
- Any violation of POH limitations.
There is an extreme safety risk if abnormal occurrence are not properly reported and dealt with.
All abnormal occurrences must be described in the Journey Log and the aircraft must be removed from service, pending an inspection by maintenance. All abnormal occurrences must be immediately reported to the Chief Flying Instructor.
With respect to ATC conflicts or potential conflicts, Instructors will recognize two categories of incidents related to control zone training operations.
A reportable incident occurs when an unsafe event or situation occurs as a result of action or inaction by ATC personnel or by a pilot engaged in LFS flight training.
A non-reportable incident occurs when potentially unsafe event or situation occurs as a result of action or inaction by ATC personnel or by a pilot engaged in LFS flight training.
A reportable incident must be immediately reported to the Chief Flying Instructor, who will make a determination or actions to be followed. The Chief Flying Instructor will, if necessary, obtain written statements from LFS staff and students, write a summary of the incident, and devise a follow-up action plan in an effort to ensure a re-occurrence of the event is avoided. The follow-up action plan should include informing other Instructors and, if necessary, students of the circumstances surrounding the incident.
A non-reportable incident is to be dealt with informally by the supervising Instructor, via direct communications with ATC personnel if necessary. While non-reportable incidents need not require written documentation, they must be reported the Chief Flying Instructor within 72 hours.
In the event that a reportable incident is formally initiated by the Tower, the Tower will advise the Chief Flying Instructor, who in turn will co-ordinate any investigation/corrective action.
In the event of a reportable incident, the Chief Flying Instructor will advise the Tower;
The following are guidelines:
- In the event of a reportable ATC incident:
- Upon completing the post-flight administration duties, prepare a written statement describing the circumstances of the event, including time, clearances, traffic, weather conditions, and any other information you may feel is relevant to the incident. Remember, this statement can be re-written if necessary, but be sure to document information as soon as possible before it is forgotten.
- In the event of a non-reportable ATC incident:
- note the time;
- note the aircraft identifier involved;
- be cool and professional on the radio, and don’t commit to trying to remedy the problem on the spot (think it over—talk it over with your colleagues);
- clarify situation (clearance status, etc.) at the time, but don’t take-up radio air-time needlessly;
- remember that the Tower cab telephones are recorded and that more open and frank (and therefore productive) discussions should be made with the controller in private.
All IFR training must conform with the Langley Flying School IFR Flight Training Course Outline and Instructor Checksheet.
The instructor must confirm that the pitot heat was physically checked for heat by the student prior to all IFR training flights; the pitot heat shall be switched on prior to initiating the takeoff roll.
The Jeppesen Airway Manual for Western Canada, as well as the current approach plates for Bellingham Airport must be carried on board all IFR training flight in which actual IFR conditions are forecast.
All training flights in actual IFR conditions must have prior approval of the Chief Flying Instructor.
IFR flight above the forecast freezing level when icing conditions exist is prohibited.
To permit a successful forced approach in the event of an engine failure, single-engine IFR flight in conditions where cloud base height and visibility is less than VFR Weather Minima is prohibited.
For multi-engine IFR training, the weather minima are in accordance with IFR minima in the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
In the event that a student deviates from an IFR clearance or published altitude by more than 100', the instructor must immediately caution the student and ensure the deviation must be immediately rectified by the student.
In the event that a student deviates from an IFR clearance or published altitude by more than 200', the instructor must immediately take control of the aircraft and rectify the deviation immediately, and simultaneously advise ATC that a correction is in progress.
In the event that a hold clearance is incorrectly entered or flown, the instructor must immediately advise ATC for the purpose of co-ordinating a rectification of the error.
The instructor must independently copy all clearances issued by ATC, including altitudes and headings.
All engine failures during multi-engine IFR training flights can only be simulated by retarding the throttle.
It is prohibited to simulate an engine failure during multi-engine IFR training below the minimum altitude published for crossing the Final Approach Fix.
The instructor must announce "Simulated" at or just prior to initiating an engine failure.
All multi-engine training must conform with the Langley Flying School Multi-Engine Flight Training Handbook.
To ensure malfunctions in the brake system are detected following maintenance, a mandatory check flight must be conducted after every 100, 500, 1000-hour maintenance check, or after any repair or maintenance to the brake system, to ensure normal braking operation; this flight must be conducted by the CFI or his delegate.
All multi-engine flights conducted by persons other than the Designated Multi-engine and IFR Instructor must obtain prior verbal authorization from the Chief Flying Instructor.
In addition to normal pre-takeoff briefings, the student or instructor must accurately brief the actions and roles to be taken in the event of an actual engine failure or malfunction.
Except in the event of an emergency, the use of the turbochargers during multi-engine flights is prohibited without prior verbal authorization from the Chief Flying Instructor.
In the event of gear malfunction, and except in the event of a fuel shortage or any other issue of safety, the instructor must attempt to make contact with the Chief Flying Instructor through ATC for the purpose of obtaining technical and visual support (spotting aircraft, etc.).
The instructor during multi-engine operations must conduct an independent and verbal GUMP (Gas, Undercarriage, Mixtures, Props) check on any actual or simulated approach prior to descending below 500' AAE.
A multi-engine landing or departure is prohibited with a crosswind component in excess of 14 knots.
Immediately prior to boarding the aircraft for departure, and after passengers have been seated, the Pilot-in-command shall conduct an external inspection of all hatches and the rear cabin door to ensure proper security, beginning with the rear cabin door, the left engine nacelle hatches, the nose compartment hatch, the right engine nacelle hatches. This inspection must include a physical check of latch-mechanism security.
Prior to every training flight departure from Langley Airport, the Flight Instructor shall ensure that the student has calculated the Seneca Accelerate-Stop Distance using the current density altitude and the planned aircraft takeoff weight.
Takeoffs in the Seneca where the Accelerate-Stop Distance exceeds the takeoff distance available are prohibited.
All dual flights are governed by the weather minima specified in the Canadian Aviation Regulations. While active VFR flight training is prohibited when below the above weather minima, Flight Instructors may operate with Special VFR authorization owing to localized phenomena during arrivals and departure.
The following minima apply to solo flights:
Additional Requirements for Strait of Georgia Flights
For solo flight across or along the Strait of Georgia, the forecast weather minima is no cloud ceiling below 6,000’ ASL, no precipitation, and a minimum (15) miles visibility.
Flight altitude over the Strait of Georgia must at all times be sufficiently high to enable maximum distance glide to land with the aircraft propeller windmilling.
Life jackets must be worn by students during Strait of Georgia crossings.
For IFR training flights, fuel and oil must be sufficient for flight to the intended destination, and hence from the destination airport to the alternate airport, plus 45 minutes at normal fuel consumption.
The weather minima for single-engine IFR flight training shall be sufficiently high so as to permit a successful forced approach during the course of flight, and at no time less than a 700’ ceiling AGL and three (3) miles visibility. For multi-engine IFR flight training, the weather minimum shall be as published for IFR flight in the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
IFR flight training at altitudes above the freezing level in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) is prohibited.
For Commercial Pilot Students who have graduated from the LFS PPL program, it is sufficient for instructors to confirm knowledge of these items by way of informal questions and answers; in the case of non-LFS graduates, the items must be reviewed in specific detail to insure student conformity with LFS training operations and procedures
Defined: Phase I consists of instrument Training up to, but not including, Night Training.
Aim: Completion of 10 hours of advanced instrument training. When possible, the instrument training conducted in the aircraft shall be completed at night.
- Phase I is composed of six Parts:
- Part 1-1—limited panel, timed turns.
- Part 1-2—limited panel, unusual attitudes.
- Part 1-3—full panel radio navigation—ADF.
- Part 1-4—full panel radio navigation—VOR.
- Part 1-5—Introduction to IFR flight.
- Parts 1-1 through Part 1-4 must be completed prior to proceeding with Phase II (Night Training), while Part 1-5 shall be completed during or after Phase II training.
- Parts 1-1 through Part 1-4, are “paired” lessons, in that the exercise is first reviewed on the Flight Simulator (All simulator flight shall be the Piper Archer II), and then conducted in the aircraft. Pairing should be used when possible, but variations from this may be used owing to such things as bookings conflicts or weather.
- Every simulator and aircraft flight shall be conducted in accordance with LFS’s Level I Standard Operating Procedures.
- Every simulator and aircraft flight shall begin with a Standard Instrument Departure assignment as set out in the Langley Flying School Flight Training Handbook.
- Every simulator and aircraft flight shall include an instrument slow flight exercise whereby, with the student under the hood, the aircraft is slowed to just above minimum control airspeed for the configuration used, and during which a minimum of two 30°-bank turn, one left and one right, each producing a minimum 90° turn.
- Every aircraft flight shall terminate with a full-simulated engine failure from mid-field Langley Airport, leading to a full stop landing.
- Every simulator flight shall terminate with a simulated ATC vectored approach into an airport with simulated below VFR weather.
- Every second aircraft flight, and every second simulator flight shall be conducted with the student occupying the right pilot seat; an entry will be made in the Record of Right Seat Flights that appears on p. 3.
- Part 1-5 shall be conducted by an instrument-rated Instructor during which the student is introduced to Holds and Vectored ILS approaches under an IFR Flight Plan and, preferably, in IMC conditions.
- This training should be conducted at night if possible, but note that instrument flight time practiced at night cannot be accredited as night flying time.
Defined: Night Training to qualify for the Night Rating.
Aim: Completion of 10 hours night flight time, including a minimum of 5 hours dual (2 of which must be cross-country flight time), and 5 hours solo (including 10 takeoffs, circuits, and landing).
- Note the weather minimum for night training.
- Every flight shall be conducted in accordance with LFS’s Level I Standard Operating Procedures.
- Every flight shall begin with a Standard Instrument Departure assignment.
- Effort should be made to split the initial night flights into two segments—upper air and circuit work.
- Night Training is composed of four Parts:
- Part 2-1—initial night flying and circuit training (leading to the first night solo flight).
- Part 2-2—solo circuit flying.
- Part 2-3—night cross-country flying.
- Part 2-4—long cross-country.
- Parts 2-1 and 2-2 shall be conducted at Langley Airport and with the student occupying the left pilot seat.
- During Part 2-1 circuit training, student must be certified as competent with respect to a) recovery from two night spins, one in visual conditions, one under the hood; and b) completing a forced landing from the downwind leg.
Extreme caution must be used when conducting night simulated forced approaches onto the runway owing to the fact that obstacles, normally visible during the day, which may not be visible at night. Continuing with a simulated approach onto a runway at night is strictly prohibited below 500’ AAE unless the aircraft is established on the extended runway centreline for final approach.
- Transition to Part 2-3 training can only occur with the completion of a minimum of two-hour solo night circuits.
- With respect to Part 2-3, all dual training shall be conducted with the student occupying the right pilot seat, while all solo training shall be conducted with the student occupying the left seat.
- Part 2-3 training shall be composed of two segments:
- Part 2-4 training shall consist of a long cross-country dual flight to Victoria and Nanaimo, emphasizing safe navigation and airport operations in a mountainous area.
- Part 2-4 training shall be conducted with the student occupying the left seat.
- The SOPs Level I Exam and the PRENITE Exam must be completed before the first night solo flight.
This part should entail approximately 3 hours of dual; each of the approximate 3 flights should consist of an upper air and circuit portion, presumably with the upper air conducted first. The upper air portion should be made of short-segment exercises to be practiced. The following are recommended exercises that should be to be conducted on each flight:
- Every dual flight shall include two steep turns (45° bank), one left and one right, each producing a minimum 180° turn.
- Every dual flight shall include a slow flight exercise in which the aircraft is slowed to 65 MPH, during which a minimum of two 30°-bank turns, one left and one right, each producing a minimum 90° turn.
- Every dual flight shall include “switch back” descending 45°-bank turns, producing a minimum vertical descent of 1000’; this exercise shall be conducted with the student under the hood.
- Every second dual flight should include a full spin exercise consisting of two spins in opposite directions, the first visual, and the second with the student under the hood.
All training for this Part must be conducted with the student occupying the left pilot seat.
Effort should be made to complete this Part in a single flight. The intent is to ensure the student is safe during the transition from en route to landing at airports other than Langley.
During the flight to Chilliwack, the “black hole” effect of mountainous terrain should be pointed out—never fly toward a black hole. A stop and go landing should be performed at each airport. After completion of the dual flight, the exercise is to be repeated solo. The dual portion of this exercise shall be conducted with the student occupying the right pilot seat, while the student will occupy the left pilot seat for the solo diversions exercise.
At Abbotsford, the variable intensity of the runway lights shall be demonstrated, as will a “no landing light” landing. (As was noted by Nick van Empel, the size of the runway and lack of lights in the vicinity of the runways makes these landings more demanding than a student would experience at Langley—especially if the intensity of the runway lights is reduced to the lowest setting.)
Between airports, review limited panel—timed turns and limited panel—unusual attitudes (one impending stall, and one impending spiral).
This exercise emphasizes the use of radio navigation aids as a supplement to night VFR navigation. Considerable preparation work is required, so it is important for them to begin planning well in advance.
Successful completion of the long night cross-country is established as a standard in addition to the cross-country requirements of Transport Canada owing to the geographic risks associated with water and topography on the west coast of British Columbia. The Georgia Strait area is a mountainous area and therefore the risk of collision with terrain at night is high.
Only students or rental pilots who have completed this flight with a Langley Flying School Flight Instructor are permitted to conduct solo night flying.
Student should be prepare for finding the published checkpoints before the flight, and be familiar with all of CYYJ departure/arrival procedures and CYCD night operation (include ARCAL)
This flight should depart CYNJ south-bound to Cherry Point, climbing to 4500’ or higher and intercept V495 south-west bound.
Nearing East Point, the student should be assigned the task of identifying this checkpoint. When this is completed, the student should conduct a descent for landing to CYYJ, and guided through the identification of the different checkpoints that make up the different VFR arrival procedures.
After landing at CYYJ, the student must taxi the aircraft to the Aeroshell ramp so as to introduce the student to the complexities of exiting the runway using taxiway markers, and navigating taxiways at an unfamiliar airport at night. If there is a risk of frost formation on the wings after landing, the portable de-icing kit should be taken on board.
Prior to the CYYJ departure, the student should review the minimum approaching altitudes published for CYYJ in the in the Obstruction Clearance Circle that appears in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS).
Depart from CYYJ and follow the shoreline to CYCD; the minimum 4500’.
Using the preferred runway instructions listed in the CFS, conducted a touch-and-go landing at CYCD.
After departing CYCD, climb to 5500’ and follow Valdes and Galiano Islands to Active Pass. If equipped with NDB or a GPS hand device, track A16 Airway to Active Pass NDB.
Enroute to Active Pass, guide the student through identifying the checkpoints depicted on the VTA using the YVR VOR.
After crossing Active Pass, visually navigate to East Point, direct Cherry Point, direct White Rock.
Over White Rock, guide the student through the identification of Langley visually.
If traffic permits, practice a simulated forced approach on to Langley Airport, ensuring that a descent below 500’ AGL is only continued if the aircraft is safely established on the final approach track for the intended runway.
The recommended aircraft for this flight is GNIC, GODP, and GUKG.
Note the special weather and equipment requirements for this flight, including Georgia Strait weather minimum, flares, and worn life jackets.
Defined: This phase consists of a single dual flight designed to introduce students to the special considerations of mountain flying.
Aim: To develop student knowledge and skill related to flying in the mountains, including mountain overflight and valley flying.
- The PREROCK Exam must be completed prior to initiating this training in the aircraft.
- The training in this Phase shall be conducted in accordance with LFS’s Level I Standard Operating Procedures
- This training shall be conducted with the student occupying the right pilot seat.
- A flight plan must be filed with ATS, and the routing in the flight plan must specify the valley names based on the river depicted on the VNC and VTA.
- Strict adherence to the weather minimum and routing is mandatory, and improvised instruction different for that specified below is strictly prohibited.
- The routing is as follows: Diversion to Tipella; Tipella to the north end of Slave Lake via Sloquet Creek Valley and Slave River Valley; north end of Slave Lake direct north-east end of Alouette Lake; Direct.
- The minimum weather for this flight is no cloud formations below 6000’ ASL along the specified route.
- Flight Instructors conducting this flight must have received a prior route check from the CFI and must be listed on the Designated Mountain Instructor list.
Prior to this flight, the student should be asked to prepare a cross-country trip to Pemberton, including a minimum of two checkpoints that should be located sufficiently “down track” of the predicted level point so as to provide an accurate ETA and updated ETA for the destination.
The weather briefing prepared by the student must be thorough, including an FA with respect to weather in applicable mountain passes and FD upper winds. NOTAMs for the departure and destination airports, as well as for the planned route must be reviewed.
The flight shall be conducted as follows: The student will depart from Langley for the direct track route to Pemberton. During the climb to the planned altitude, take the opportunity for the student to estimate the minimum altitude at which the aircraft will safely clear the first significant mountain, and then have the student level at that altitude and continue level flight to the vicinity of the peak and confirm (hopefully) the estimate. Allow the student to proceed sufficiently far along the planned track to Pemberton so as to provide an accurate ETA—attention at this point should be directed to correctly identifying the checkpoint and ensuring the correct identity of the checkpoint by identifying a minimum of two confirmation landmarks.
During the process of leveling the aircraft, review the proper leaning method—how to obtain the best power mixture by leaning for maximum RPM, and the “School” method of one-inch rich of this point.
Then have the student divert to Tipella at the north end of Harrison Lake. When the student gets to the point at which the ETA to Tipella is updated—presumably at a one-quarter or one-third checkpoint—have the student orbit and review the landmarks which confirm the identity of the checkpoint.
Over Tipella, have the student conduct “switch-back” descending steep turns with reduced power.
The student must then be asked to conduct a diversion up the Sloquet Cr. Pass to the Stave River Valley. The student should be asked to determine the “decision height” for this routing based on map reading while the aircraft is circling, as well as estimate the ETA to the north tip of Stave Lake.
In identifying the entrance to the Sloquet Cr. Pass, the student must make use of matching up the aircraft heading to the compass orientation the pass opening.
In entering the pass, review strategies for dealing with rising terrain—i.e., conducting a gentle spiral climb—noting especially that the decision to climb must be done early while there is still room for the maneuver.
During flight through the pass, review the “box canyon” scenario, emphasizing that the improper identification of the routing of the pass could have deadly consequences, and simultaneously that pass “intersections” must be scrutinized carefully prior to committing the aircraft.
During flight along the pass, review a series of “valley turns,” including the speed turn at normal cruise speeds, and the 30° bank turn with 2000 RPM. Review positioning the aircraft prior to the turn—close to right slope as possible, yet ensuring safe separation. During these turns, point out the importance of instrument reference when “face on” to the valley slope, and the importance of looking up the valley for reference during the turn.
Commercial Pilot Students 300 NM Cross-Country
Prior to authorizing a Commercial Pilot Students 300 NM Cross-Country Flight, Flight Instructors must establish specific protocols for enhanced flight-following that permits direct communication with the Flight Instructor via telephone or text prior to, and at the termination of, each leg of the trip. The communication protocols must address weather, fuel and flight times.
The GPS Spot shall be carried and active during all legs of the flight
Additionally, Flight Instructor must complete supervising tasks as follows:
- assess the student’s readiness for the flight, including
- a review of the student’s chart preparation, navigation log, including fuel planning (including the use of current charts if required (US Airspace);
- ensure the student is aware that they must always under a Flight Service Flight Plan, and in the case of US airspace, ensure they are aware of the opening and closing procedures;
- ensure the student is aware of the need to provide position reports and ETA updates to Flight Service during the flights
- airport and alternate airport preparation and planning, including the use of current publications if required (US airspace);
- ensure the student has access to a credit card for fuel purchases;
- ensure the student has proper knowledge of GPS Spot operations;
- survival gear preparations, including the mandatory carrying of sleeping bags and the large survival kit;
- aircraft security, including tie-down ropes, tow bar, flight light, two litres of engine oil;
- in the case of flight into US airspace, assess the student’s working knowledge of border crossing procedures for both directions.
This section provides the emergency response plan for various emergency scenerios where a state of readiness of staff members must be maintained. Copies of procedures shall be posted in individual Instructor offices, and the emergency training shall be reviewed annually by Instructors, and at the time of hiring.
At intervals of not less than a year, the emergency procedures shall be reviewed staff members as recurrent training; the emergency procedures shall also be reviewed at the time of hiring (initial training). Safety training will be recorded in the Record of Safety Training (EQA 1100).
At a minimum of once a month, an inspection shall be conducted (incorporated into the Monthly Safety Inspection (EQA 1000) to ensure the Emergency Procedures are properly and conspicuously posted in Instructor Offices (including the CFI's Office) and the front desk position, and that the posting is current with the revision number of these procedures. The Monthly Safety Inspection will also ensure that annual recurrent training of staff member has occurred in the proceeding 12 months, and that initial training has occurred, as applicable, in the preceding 30 days in the case of newly hired staff. In the case of an unsatisfactory finding or instance of non-conformity, a Langley Flying School Non-conformance or Unsatisfactory Finding Report will be submitted to the CFI.
If an aircraft is 30 minutes overdue, the person who becomes aware of the overdue shall immediately advise the senior instructor on duty of the overdue status, and the senior instructor shall assume the responsibilities of the Instructor-in-charge (IIC).
The IIC is responsible to ensure these provisions of the Emergency Response Plan are properly executed until physically relieved by the Chief Flying Instructor or Associate Chief Flying Instructor.
The IIC will discontinue normal operations and remain in the front office of the School.
The IIC will collect and compile information pertaining to the flight, including flight crew, departure time, proposed arrival time, fuel, exercises, and any other information pertaining to the overdue flight which may be available from staff and students.
The IIC will contact the Tower, if operational, to determine the Tower record of departure, and any other information pertaining to the overdue flight which may be available from Tower personnel.
At 45 minutes Overdue, the IIC will contact the Chief Flying Instructor and Associate Chief Flying Instructor of the overdue status.
The IIC will retain responsibility for these provisions of the Emergency Response Plan until physically relieved by the Chief Flying Instructor or the Associate Chief Flying Instructor.
The IIC will continue to collect and compile information pertaining to the flight.
At 45 minutes Overdue, the IIC will contact Kamloops Flight Service to determine if FSS personnel have any information pertaining to the overdue flight.
At 45 minutes Overdue, the IIC will compile next-of-kin data for the flight crew, including names and telephone numbers.
An aircraft must be considered overdue if it does not return to Langley Airport within one (1) hour of the estimated return time posted on the Flight Operations Log.
From this point on, all actions taken by the IIC must be predicated on the following assumptions:
- The aircraft has crashed.
- The occupants are badly injured and in immediate need of medical assistance.
All Langley Flying School training operations must be terminated, the School vacated of students, and the telephone lines cleared.
At 60 minutes Overdue, the IIC shall terminate all scheduled training activity and immediately contact Kamloops Flight Service and provide the following:
- Langley Flying School regards the aircraft as overdue;
- Report all details of the flight contained on the Flight Operations Log;
- Report any other information pertaining to the flight, including information that may be provided by staff and students;
- Advise that personnel will be standing by at Langley Flying School, and that all information obtaining pertaining to the overdue flight will be immediately relayed via telephone to Kamloops Flight Service.
- Advise Kamloops Flight Service that Langley Flying School is contacting the flight crews’ next-of-kin and that all information Kamloops Flight Service must be immediately relayed to Langley Flying School.
The senior instructor shall contact the Langley Tower Control Unit, if operational, and advise Tower staff and:
- Report that Langley Flying School regards the aircraft as overdue;
- Inquiry as to any information the Tower staff may have pertaining to the overdue aircraft;
- Advise the Tower staff that Kamloops Flight Service has been advised;
- Advise the Tower staff of the need for them to immediately relay to Langley Flying School any information related to the overdue aircraft.
The senior instructor shall not leave the office until relieved of his or her duty by another instructor.
The senior instructor shall contact the next of kin of the flight crew involved and convey all known information regarding the status of the flight. The next of kin shall be invited to come to the school.
The senior instructor shall advise staff of the importance of public media silence so as to protect the privacy of love ones involved.
All actions by staff in response to a disabled aircraft shall be predicated on the following assumptions:
- The occupants of the aircraft are badly injured and in immediate need of medical assistance.
- The aircraft and the occupants are at risk of fire.
Response to disable aircraft:
If the Langley Control Tower (LCT) is operational and active, then
- in the event that the aircraft structure appears damaged, immediately attend the accident site by vehicle, ensuring to take the fire extinguisher and render whatever immediate assistance is possible
- in the event that the aircraft structure does not appear damaged, immediately contact the LCT by telephone, offering assistance.
If the LCT is not operational, then
- in the event that the aircraft structure appears damaged, immediately contact 911 for the purpose of obtaining emergency medical aid and fire fighting; then, immediately attend the accident site by vehicle, ensuring to take the fire extinguisher fire blanket and render whatever immediate assistance is safely possible.
- in the event that the aircraft structure does not appear damaged, immediately attend the accident site by vehicle, ensuring to take the fire extinguisher and fire blanket, and render whatever immediate assistance as is safetly possible.
Calm cool thinking will be required in the event of a disabled aircraft. Overall priority is welfare of the occupants. If the Tower is active, they will provide communication assistance and they will first attempt to make contact with the occupants to determine if medical assistance is required. If the accident occurs on the runway, it is likely that operations will be immediately suspended. While staff in the office must immediately attend the accident site via vehicle, this must be done so without causing risk of another accident related to crossing a runway, etc. but it must be clear that that movement to the accident site will not cause hazard with airport operations. After the initial response to an accident, the Chief Flight Instructor or Assistant Chief Flying Instructor must be immediately advised. In the event of injury, next of kin must be contacted immediately and provided with full available information regarding events. The Langley Flying School office must be vacated of non-staff persons. The accident site must be protected in the event of a "reportable aviation accident" (AIP GEN 3-1), which occurs when "a person sustains a serious injury or is killed" as the result of being on board an aircraft, coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents, or as a result of exposure to jet blast or rotor downwash.
- In the event of a risk to personal safety (e.g. fire, gas leak, bomb threat, etc.), the first staff member becoming aware of the risk to personal safety will immediately inspect ALL school offices and classrooms (as situation allows) and advise ALL occupants to “EVACUATE BUILDING” through the NEAREST designated exit.
- All persons inside the building to assemble at the EVACUATION ASSEMBLY POINT, which is in front of Museum Picnic Tables located in the south-west corner of the Museum Hangar #3.
- Do not place yourself at risk of personal injury.
- Do not stop to collect personal possessions.
- Delegate another staff member to call 911 and request applicable emergency aid. If no other staff member is available, then the first staff member becoming aware of the risk to personal safety will call 911 and request applicable emergency aid.
- Take cordless phone outside with you to call 911, or use a cell phone.
- Once assembled at the Evacuation Assembly Point, the Chief Flying Instructor, Associate Chief Flying Instructor, or Senior Instructor, as applicable, will investigate the possibility of other persons still being inside. DO NOT re-enter the building until advised it is safe to do so. Notify residents of neighbouring buildings of any risk (as applicable).
The following procedures are adapted from FEMA.
During an Earthquake
Drop, cover and Hold On. Minimize your movements to a few steps to a nearby safe place and if you are indoors, stay there until the shaking has stopped and you are sure exiting is safe.
- DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece of furniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you, cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building.
- Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, such as lighting fixtures or furniture.
- Do not use a doorway except if you know it is a strongly supported, load-bearing doorway and it is close to you. Many inside doorways are lightly constructed and do not offer protection..
- Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Do not exit a building during the shaking. Research has shown that most injuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location inside the building or try to leave.
- DO NOT use the elevators.
- Be aware that the electricity may go out or the sprinkler systems or fire alarms may turn on.
- Stay there.
- Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
- Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops. The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, at exits and alongside exterior walls. Many of the 120 fatalities from the 1933 Long Beach earthquake occurred when people ran outside of buildings only to be killed by falling debris from collapsing walls. Ground movement during an earthquake is seldom the direct cause of death or injury. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flying glass, and falling objects.
If Trapped Under Debris
- Do not light a match.
- Do not move about or kick up dust.
- Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.
- Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Use a whistle if one is available. Shout only as a last resort. Shouting can cause you to inhale dangerous amounts of dust.
After an Earthquake
- When the shaking stops, look around to make sure it is safe to move. Then exit the building.
- Expect aftershocks. These secondary shockwaves are usually less violent than the main quake but can be strong enough to do additional damage to weakened structures and can occur in the first hours, days, weeks, or even months after the quake.
- Help injured or trapped persons. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance such as infants, the elderly and people with access and functional needs. Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help.
- Look for and extinguish small fires. Fire is the most common hazard after an earthquake.
- Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information.
- Be aware of possible tsunamis if you live in coastal areas. These are also known as seismic sea waves (mistakenly called "tidal waves"). When local authorities issue a tsunami warning, assume that a series of dangerous waves is on the way. Stay away from the beach.
- Use the telephone only for emergency calls.
Instructor--see Flight Instructor