When an alternate means of navigation to the final approach course—e.g., radar vectors—is not available, the pilot flies a procedure turn, which begins when the aircraft crossing the final approach fix going outbound, and ends when the final approach course is intercepted with the aircraft proceeding inbound toward the final approach fix and the final approach for landing.
The procedure turn must be conducted within a published distance from the final approach fix, and must be conducted on the published protected side for the approach procedure—i.e., either right or left of the final approach course. Finally, the aircraft cannot descend below the published procedure turn altitude.
A pilot must report “beacon outbound” upon crossing the fix for the procedure turn, and “beacon inbound” crossing the fix on the final approach for landing.
Note that the procedure turn is based on “45°-offsets. This corresponds to the 45°-offsets published on the approach plate (planview).